Joseph Grows in Faith and Charactor
Comments for Study 24
Memory Verse 39:1
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I. In Potiphar's House (39:1-18)
>1. See 37:36 and 39:1 and describe how Joseph ended up in Egypt especially considering the dreams he had. Think about the hardships he must have encountered which are not recorded. Describe his success in Egypt. (39:2, 5, 6) How does the writer emphasize his success and account for it?
Genesis 39:1 "Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt. Potiphar, an Egyptian who was one of Pharaoh's officials, the captain of the guard, bought him from the Ishmaelites who had taken him there."
* "Now Joseph" -The rest of Genesis focus on how God used Joseph. Judah is not mentioned again until chapter 43. It was then, after Reuben's leadership failed again, that a slow change and maturing in Judah is revealed. Joseph's place in Israel's history is a great example to us from this point on.
* Joseph's life has things coming in pairs:
1) his two dreams
2) two groups carry him into Egypt
3) two coats get him into trouble
4) twice in a prison/hole
5) two fellow jail mates tell him their dreams
6) Pharaoh's two dreams
7) his brothers go to him twice for food
8) he has two sons
9) two slave masters
10) two more years in prison from the cup bearer's dream until Pharaoh's dreams
* Joseph must have missed his father, his family, his friends, his freedom, his place of special honor.
* "Potiphar" -meaning "belonging to the Sun" perhaps in reference to the Egyptian sun god.
* "Pharaoh's officials" -God's providence that Joseph was made as he was so that he ended up close to Pharaoh and being second in charge in Egypt. The timing was not right for Judah needed to go through his changing process through Tamar. Thus several years transpired. Joseph went from being a teenage to a young man.
* "the captain of the guard" -The Pharaohs claimed to be a god on this earth and yet they needed guards. When God did come to this earth, Jesus he had no guards.
* "Pharaoh" -Many historians say that at this time Egypt was still not under one united kingdom. There were several kingdoms with one Pharaoh's kingdom in charge of the rest; a kind of united states of Egypt.
Genesis 39:2-6a "The Lord was with Joseph and he prospered, and he lived in the house of his Egyptian master. When his master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord gave him success in everything he did, Joseph found favor in his eyes and became his attendant. Potiphar put him in charge of his household, and he entrusted to his care everything he owned. From the time he put him in charge of his household and of all that he owned, the Lord blessed the household of the Egyptian because of Joseph. The blessing of the Lord was on everything Potiphar had, both in the house and in the field. So he left in Joseph's care everything he had; with Joseph in charge, he did not concern himself with anything except the food he ate."
* "The Lord was with Joseph" -As part of God's will Joseph was watched over so that all that he did prospered. Divine blessing like Joseph's does not always happen. In fact, for the most part the prophets, Jesus, and the apostles from a human point of view were failures. They were not rich, didn't own much land if any, were often mistreated and some even jailed and killed. (Heb. 11) God has plans and sometimes it means for the individual to prosper in this world and other times to not prosper. Prosperity in this world cannot be used to determine if someone is blessed by God. This is one of the messages of he book of Job.
* "he lived in the house of his Egyptian master" -Not a bad place to live considering how many other servants/slaves have lived throughout human history.
* "saw that the LORD was with him" -A good leader surrounds himself with capable and blessed people. Poor leaders surround themselves with yes men no matter what their capabilities. The reason Joseph prospered in everything was to be noticed not for Joseph's selfish use, though he no doubt benefited too. John 3:21 states, "But whoever lives by the truth comes into the light, so that it may be seen plainly that what he has done has been done through God."
* "the LORD was with him" -repeated three times (2, 21, 23)
* "became his attendant" -Joseph was promoted. Why didn't God directly put him in charge of Egypt? Joseph needed to learn how to manage bigger and bigger projects; thus promotions were needed. Not only that, but we can see this as the LORD testing Joseph in small things to see if he would be faithful. If he passed the test, then he would be promoted to higher responsibilities. Jesus taught, "From everyone who has been given much, much will be demanded; and from the one who has been entrusted with much, much more will be asked." (Luke 12:48b)
* The Lord blessing Egyptians through Joseph was a foreshadow of how God would fulfill his promise to Abraham, "all peoples on earth will be blessed through you" (12:3) and "all nations will be blessed through him" (18:18). The Messiah would be his seed and the believers in Jesus, the Messiah would, indeed has become a blessing and a light in all the world as Joseph was in Egypt.
>2. What was the nature of the temptation Joseph encountered in Potiphar's house? How did he overcome it? What does this event teach us about Joseph's faith? About his concept of servitude?
Genesis 39:6b-10 "Now Joseph was well-built and handsome, and after a while his master's wife took notice of Joseph and said, "Come to bed with me!" But he refused. "With me in charge," he told her, "my master does not concern himself with anything in the house; everything he owns he has entrusted to my care. No one is greater in this house than I am. My master has withheld nothing from me except you, because you are his wife. How then could I do such a wicked thing and sin against God?" And though she spoke to Joseph day after day, he refused to go to bed with her or even be with her."
* "well-built and handsome" -Those who have been blessed in this way should take Joseph's example of humility and faithful hard work.
* "but he refused... sin against God" -Joseph, as a foreshadow of Ephraim (the northern kingdom) and the church through their scattering did what ought to be done. As the Apostles told the Gentile believers in Jesus (the church), "You are to abstain from food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals and from sexual immorality. You will do well to avoid these things." (Acts 15:29)
* "God" -Joseph proclaimed God to her though she did not receive it well. Yet another good example for us to follow.
* "day after day" -Often the evil one continually is allowed to tempt us over and over again with the same temptation. Joseph's life was made miserable because of her. Yet he did not go to his master to complain about her. That would have been foolish. He endured the continual temptation.
* "or even to be with her" -He avoided the temptation whenever possible. Judah was, as a contrast, was quickly seduced by Tamar.
* "my master" -Joseph respected the chain of command that God had put over him, no matter that he was a slave or not. He knew his place and responsibilities. Ephesians 6:5-9 states, "Slaves, obey your earthly masters with respect and fear, and with sincerity of heart, just as you would obey Christ. Obey them not only to win their favor when their eye is on you, but like slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from your heart. Serve wholeheartedly, as if you were serving the Lord, not men, because you know that the Lord will reward everyone for whatever good he does, whether he is slave or free. And masters, treat your slaves in the same way. Do not threaten them, since you know that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no favoritism with him." Colossians 3:22-25 also says this and expands it to any job. "Slaves, obey your earthly masters in everything; and do it, not only when their eye is on you and to win their favor, but with sincerity of heart and reverence for the Lord. Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men, since you know that you will receive an inheritance from the Lord as a reward. It is the Lord Christ you are serving. Anyone who does wrong will be repaid for his wrong, and there is no favoritism."
Genesis 39:11-15 "One day he went into the house to attend to his duties, and none of the household servants was inside. She caught him by his cloak and said, "Come to bed with me!" But he left his cloak in her hand and ran out of the house. When she saw that he had left his cloak in her hand and had run out of the house, she called her household servants. "Look," she said to them, "this Hebrew has been brought to us to make sport of us! He came in here to sleep with me, but I screamed. When he heard me scream for help, he left his cloak beside me and ran out of the house."
* Was Paul thinking of Joseph when he wrote the Corinthians, "Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body," (1 Cor. 6:18-20) and then to young Timothy, "Flee the evil desires of youth, and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, along with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart." (2 Tim. 2:22)?
* She is typical of those who substitute sex for love. She could not be trusted. The one who loves, on the other hand, can be trusted.
* "Hebrew" -First time this is used since referring to Abraham. (Gen. 14:13) Hebrew means a descendant of Eber, one of the grandsons of Shem. (Gen. 10:21-24) The sinners of the ancient word used it as a derogatory term against the promised line.
* It could rightly be ask how anyone before Moses could be "judged" or do right and wrong since God had not given the written Law. The book of Job, who lived in the time of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, shows that men knew much of what God had wanted for mankind; that is, how he intended and built us to live by. Paul wrote, "Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them." (Rom. 2:14-15) So it can be said of those before the law, a subject Paul addresses another time in Romans too.
* "clock" -Joseph's coat seems to always get him into trouble and ripped off him. No one liked him being a leader.
* "left his clock" -In contrast Judah left his ring with Tamar.
Genesis 39:16-20a "She kept his cloak beside her until his master came home. Then she told him this story: "That Hebrew slave you brought us came to me to make sport of me. But as soon as I screamed for help, he left his cloak beside me and ran out of the house." When his master heard the story his wife told him, saying, "This is how your slave treated me," he burned with anger. Joseph's master took him and put him in prison, the place where the king's prisoners were confined."
* How did Joseph respond to this emotionally? Psalms 105:16-22 states, "He called down famine on the land and destroyed all their supplies of food; and he sent a man before them-- Joseph, sold as a slave. They bruised his feet with shackles, his neck was put in irons, till what he foretold came to pass, till the word of the Lord proved him true. The king sent and released him, the ruler of peoples set him free. He made him master of his household, ruler over all he possessed, to instruct his princes as he pleased and teach his elders wisdom."
* "he burned with anger" -And yet Joseph's master was kind to him. By Egyptian law he could have killed him. He must have suspected what was going on in his house. Joseph's master was master of the guard and thus in charge of this prison. So he put him in a prison under his control; perhaps to see that he wasn't treated to harshly.
* Joseph did what was right before the LORD and to his master and yet he was treated harshly and put in jail. Often not the right thing happens to those who do the right thing.
>3. How does his faith and actions compare to his brothers? (See previous studies.)
II. In Prison (39:19-40:23)
>4. Where did Joseph end up? (20) Was this fair? What happened while in prison? (21-23) What does this say about how God works in our lives?
>5. Why might Joseph have been bitter about being suddenly sent to prison? Why do you think he wasn't?
Genesis 39:20b-23 "But while Joseph was there in the prison, the Lord was with him; he showed him kindness and granted him favor in the eyes of the prison warden. So the warden put Joseph in charge of all those held in the prison, and he was made responsible for all that was done there. The warden paid no attention to anything under Joseph's care, because the Lord was with Joseph and gave him success in whatever he did."
* "in prison... the Lord was with him" -like Peter, James, and Paul.
* "the Lord... granted him favor" -Again, according to the Lord's will.
* "in charge of all those in prison" -More training for Joseph. Before it was for a household including the fields. Now it was in charge of people.
* Paul would later write, "I know what it is to be in need, and I know what it is to have plenty. I have learned the secret of being content in any and every situation, whether well fed or hungry, whether living in plenty or in want. I can do everything through him who gives me strength." (Phil. 4:12-13)
* Job said, "Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked I will depart. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away; may the name of the Lord be praised," (Job 1:21) when he lost his children and wealth. When he lost his health and his wife turned on him he said, "You are talking like a foolish woman. Shall we accept good from God, and not trouble?" In all this, Job did not sin in what he said." (Job 2:11)
>6. What reveals Joseph's kind mind even in prison? How did he teach God's word to the cupbearer and baker, and help them to believe in God? (40)
Genesis 40:1-5 "Some time later, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt offended their master, the king of Egypt. Pharaoh was angry with his two officials, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker, and put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, in the same prison where Joseph was confined. The captain of the guard assigned them to Joseph, and he attended them. After they had been in custody for some time, each of the two men--the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were being held in prison--had a dream the same night, and each dream had a meaning of its own."
* "Some time later" -Unknown, perhaps years. Joseph could have begun to believe he would never get out. Now, more than ever, the dreams of his youth would encourage him that God had other plans for him and that he would get out.
* "the cupbearer and the baker" -Responsible not only for his drink and breads, but they had to ensure that he wasn't poisoned and that everything tested good.
* "offended their master" -we do not know how they offended him. It seems they were awaiting an investigation and/or a decision of who was at fault. However it offended Pharaoh it would mean death.
* "put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard" -Joseph was still officially in his master house who as captain of the guard had a prison in his house. The house was big and probably had several buildings.
* "dreams" -Egyptians like most ancient cultures believed that God and/or spirits communicated to us in dreams. Egyptians has people who acted as dream interprets, much like people today call themselves spiritualists, card readers, and mediums of spirits. People don't realize that evil spirits can mislead us through these type of people. That is why the apostle taught us, "Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world." (1 John 4:1)
>7. Did he fatalistically and passively accept slave life and prison life? what did he reveal about his inner suffering in their situation? (40:14-15)
Genesis 40:6-15 "When Joseph came to them the next morning, he saw that they were dejected. So he asked Pharaoh's officials who were in custody with him in his master's house, "Why are your faces so sad today?" "We both had dreams," they answered, "but there is no one to interpret them." Then Joseph said to them, "Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell me your dreams." So the chief cupbearer told Joseph his dream. He said to him, "In my dream I saw a vine in front of me, and on the vine were three branches. As soon as it budded, it blossomed, and its clusters ripened into grapes. Pharaoh's cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes, squeezed them into Pharaoh's cup and put the cup in his hand." "This is what it means," Joseph said to him. "The three branches are three days. Within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your position, and you will put Pharaoh's cup in his hand, just as you used to do when you were his cupbearer. But when all goes well with you, remember me and show me kindness; mention me to Pharaoh and get me out of this prison. For I was forcibly carried off from the land of the Hebrews, and even here I have done nothing to deserve being put in a dungeon."
* "Why are your faces so sad today?" -Joseph was personable and kind. He was able to notice when these men were feeling low. Not only that he had compassion on them. Jesus also had compassion on people because they were like sheep without a shepherd. (Mark 6:34)
* "there is no one to interpret them" -In jail they had no money, authority, and connections to get a dream interpretor; who of course did not provide the service for nothing as they always do.
* "belong to God" -Joseph used the opportunity to witness about God to them. He remained humble.
* "tell me your dreams" -Joseph would help without asking for money.
* "remember me and show me kindness" -Joseph did want something in return; not money, but kindness.
* Joseph states two things; he was forced into slavery, he was innocent of the crime that put him in jail.
Genesis 40:16-23 "When the chief baker saw that Joseph had given a favorable interpretation, he said to Joseph, "I too had a dream: On my head were three baskets of bread. In the top basket were all kinds of baked goods for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating them out of the basket on my head." "This is what it means," Joseph said. "The three baskets are three days. Within three days Pharaoh will lift off your head and hang you on a tree. And the birds will eat away your flesh." Now the third day was Pharaoh's birthday, and he gave a feast for all his officials. He lifted up the heads of the chief cupbearer and the chief baker in the presence of his officials: He restored the chief cupbearer to his position, so that he once again put the cup into Pharaoh's hand, but he hanged the chief baker, just as Joseph had said to them in his interpretation. The chief cupbearer, however, did not remember Joseph; he forgot him."
* The kind act of the saints for others seldom gets recognized.
* It was not the time for Joseph to leave jail and go into the service of Pharaoh.
III. In Charge of Egypt (41:1-57)
>8. How did Joseph get out of prison? What was his attitude toward Pharaoh? What did he teach Pharaoh about God? (16, 25, 28, 32)
Genesis 41:1-8 "When two full years had passed, Pharaoh had a dream: He was standing by the Nile, when out of the river there came up seven cows, sleek and fat, and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on the riverbank. And the cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up. He fell asleep again and had a second dream: Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. fter them, seven other heads of grain sprouted--thin and scorched by the east wind. he thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up; it had been a dream. n the morning his mind was troubled, so he sent for all the magicians and wise men of Egypt. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but no one could interpret them for him."
* "no one could interpret" -They were use to dreams from evil spirits, not dreams from God.
* Pharaoh was not the only non-believing leader to receive dreams from God. Nebuchadnezzar did too.
Genesis 41:9-14 "Then the chief cupbearer said to Pharaoh, "Today I am reminded of my shortcomings. Pharaoh was once angry with his servants, and he imprisoned me and the chief baker in the house of the captain of the guard. Each of us had a dream the same night, and each dream had a meaning of its own. Now a young Hebrew was there with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. We told him our dreams, and he interpreted them for us, giving each man the interpretation of his dream. And things turned out exactly as he interpreted them to us: I was restored to my position, and the other man was hanged." So Pharaoh sent for Joseph, and he was quickly brought from the dungeon. When he had shaved and changed his clothes, he came before Pharaoh."
* "shaved and changed his clothes" -Egyptians were cleaned shaved and Palestinians wore beards. Still, in Egypt slaves also were required to be clean shaved. In jail Joseph could not and probably did not want to shave. Greeks and Romans also shaved which is why men in the western world still shave. This is another place where Joseph is a foreshadow of today's age.
* One day we can be in prison, the next we can be before leaders and kings, not by our doing nor for ourselves, all centers around God and his will.
Genesis 41:16-24 "I cannot do it," Joseph replied to Pharaoh, "but God will give Pharaoh the answer he desires." Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "In my dream I was standing on the bank of the Nile, when out of the river there came up seven cows, fat and sleek, and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows came up--scrawny and very ugly and lean. I had never seen such ugly cows in all the land of Egypt. The lean, ugly cows ate up the seven fat cows that came up first. But even after they ate them, no one could tell that they had done so; they looked just as ugly as before. Then I woke up. "In my dreams I also saw seven heads of grain, full and good, growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads sprouted--withered and thin and scorched by the east wind. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven good heads. I told this to the magicians, but none could explain it to me."
* Again, Joseph is an example of how believers in Jesus in this age more than any other are used by God for the good of all nations.
* "I cannot do it" -What a bold way to begin before the ruler of the land.
* "God will give" -This is the third and certainly not the only time Joseph witnesses about the true God.
* "magicians" -masters of illusion and tricks.
>9. What was the meaning of Pharaoh's dreams? Why did Pharaoh choose Joseph to be prime minister of Egypt? How old was Joseph at the time?
Genesis 41:25-32 "Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, "The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is one and the same dream. The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of famine. "It is just as I said to Pharaoh: God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do. Seven years of great abundance are coming throughout the land of Egypt, but seven years of famine will follow them. Then all the abundance in Egypt will be forgotten, and the famine will ravage the land. The abundance in the land will not be remembered, because the famine that follows it will be so severe. The reason the dream was given to Pharaoh in two forms is that the matter has been firmly decided by God, and God will do it soon."
* "God has revealed to Pharaoh" -God works with and through all kinds of people to accomplish his will. We should not be proud that he works through us. Jesus taught, "So you also, when you have done everything you were told to do, should say, 'We are unworthy servants; we have only done our duty.'" (Luke 17:10)
* Two different dreams that mean the same thing is revealed.
Genesis 41:33-40 "And now let Pharaoh look for a discerning and wise man and put him in charge of the land of Egypt. Let Pharaoh appoint commissioners over the land to take a fifth of the harvest of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. They should collect all the food of these good years that are coming and store up the grain under the authority of Pharaoh, to be kept in the cities for food. This food should be held in reserve for the country, to be used during the seven years of famine that will come upon Egypt, so that the country may not be ruined by the famine." The plan seemed good to Pharaoh and to all his officials. So Pharaoh asked them, "Can we find anyone like this man, one in whom is the spirit of God?" Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Since God has made all this known to you, there is no one so discerning and wise as you. You shall be in charge of my palace, and all my people are to submit to your orders. Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you."
* What of preparation? Is it good? Yes. However we should always trust in God and never worry. Jesus taught that God loves the birds of the air and the lilies of the field and so cares for them. He said, "Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or drink; or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more important than food, and the body more important than clothes?" (Matt. 6:25-34)
* "one in whom is the spirit of God" -When we remain humble and true to God in all and every situation, people begin to recognize it even though they say it or not.
>10. How did Joseph serve Egypt? How did God use him to save the lives of many people? How did he fare personally?
Genesis 41:41-46 "So Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I hereby put you in charge of the whole land of Egypt." Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his finger and put it on Joseph's finger. He dressed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. He had him ride in a chariot as his second-in-command, and men shouted before him, "Make way!" Thus he put him in charge of the whole land of Egypt. Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, but without your word no one will lift hand or foot in all Egypt." Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-Paneah and gave him Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, to be his wife. And Joseph went throughout the land of Egypt. Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from Pharaoh's presence and traveled throughout Egypt."
* "signet ring" -sign of power and authority of the owner.
* "He dressed him in robes of fine linen" -This time no one would strip the rob from him.
* "put a gold chain around his neck" -opposite of the iron chains of jail.
* Verse 43 reminds me of how Esther's uncle was treated after his ordeal.
* "Zaphenath-Paneah" -unclear meaning
* "Asenath" -Egyptian name meaning "She belongs to the goddess Neith".
* "daughter of Potiphera, priest of On" -Egyptian name meaning, "He whom (the sun god) Ra has given. On is a city ten miles north-east of modern Cairo, location of a temple to Ra.
* "thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh" -Joseph was seventeen when he gave a bad report of his brothers just before he had his dreams (37:2) When I was thirty my son, my first child was born.
* Joseph's three symbols of power were: ring, a rob, and a gold chain.
>11. How did God reveal his sovereignty over Egypt and the world? How did Joseph testify to his faith in God in the naming of his sons?
Genesis 41:47-57 "During the seven years of abundance the land produced plentifully. Joseph collected all the food produced in those seven years of abundance in Egypt and stored it in the cities. In each city he put the food grown in the fields surrounding it. Joseph stored up huge quantities of grain, like the sand of the sea; it was so much that he stopped keeping records because it was beyond measure. Before the years of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph by Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On. Joseph named his firstborn Manasseh and said, "It is because God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father's household." The second son he named Ephraim and said, "It is because God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering." The seven years of abundance in Egypt came to an end, and the seven years of famine began, just as Joseph had said. There was famine in all the other lands, but in the whole land of Egypt there was food. When all Egypt began to feel the famine, the people cried to Pharaoh for food. Then Pharaoh told all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph and do what he tells you." When the famine had spread over the whole country, Joseph opened the storehouses and sold grain to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe throughout Egypt. And all the countries came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph, because the famine was severe in all the world."
* "Ephraim" -means twice fruitful, perhaps because he was the second son.
* "Manasseh" -means forget
* The prophetic meaning the Joseph's sons names can be seen in the history of Israel and the age we are now in.
* A time of trouble unlike has ever seen before in human history is coming; indeed the beginnings are seen now. Are you prepared? To be prepared visit THIS PAGE.