Comments for Study 17
Memory Verse: 13
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I. The Sabbath (23:1-3)
>1. Who appointed the feasts and sacred assemblies? (1-2, 37-38, 44; Rom. 14:1-8)
* Leviticus 23:1-2 "The LORD said to Moses, "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'These are my appointed feasts, the appointed feasts of the LORD, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies."
* Leviticus 23:37-38 "These are the LORD's appointed feasts, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies for bringing offerings made to the LORD by fire--the burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings required for each day. These offerings are in addition to those for the LORD's Sabbaths and in addition to your gifts and whatever you have vowed and all the freewill offerings you give to the LORD."
* Leviticus 23:44 "So Moses announced to the Israelites the appointed feasts of the LORD."
* Exodus 23:14-17 "Three times a year you are to celebrate a festival to me. Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days eat bread made without yeast, as I commanded you. Do this at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in that month you came out of Egypt. No one is to appear before me empty-handed. Celebrate the Feast of Harvest with the firstfruits of the crops you sow in your field. Celebrate the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in your crops from the field. Three times a year all the men are to appear before the Sovereign LORD."
* "Lord" -Lord here in Hebrew is YHWH. YHWH is the name of Lord given at the giving of the covenant at Mount Sinia. YHWH is an abbreviated word with all the vowels taken out. Somewhere along the way the Israelites believed that the name of their God was so holy that sinful man should not say it or even write it. So they abbreviated it.
* "The Lord said to Moses" -The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron and they were to speak to the Israelites.
* "appointed feasts" -The feast were very important. They are in Exodus 23:14-17, 34:18-25; Num. 28-29; and Deut. 16:1-17. The parallel in Numbers (the fullest and closest to Leviticus) specifies in great detail the offerings to be made at each feast.
* "sacred assemblies" -The Israelites were to come together as a community holy and blameless before the Lord in Jerusalem for these feasts.
* "for bringing offerings" -All the feasts required bring offerings. No one was to come empty handed to the feasts.
* "the burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings... Sabbath... gifts... freewill offerings" -Defined elsewhere in Leviticus.
* A growing debate has intensified in recent years since more and more Jews accept Jesus as the Messiah. Also, modern cults point accusing fingers at the church. The debate concerns the Sabbath (Saturday) vs. Sunday services, the Passover vs. Easter, and Hanukkah vs. Christmas services. The same issues split the church into Eastern Orthodox and Catholics over 1,700 years ago. Paul wrote regarding sacred assemblies, "Accept him whose faith is weak, without passing judgment on disputable matters. One man's faith allows him to eat everything, but another man, whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables. The man who eats everything must not look down on him who does not, and the man who does not eat everything must not condemn the man who does, for God has accepted him. Who are you to judge someone else's servant? To his own master he stands or falls. And he will stand, for the Lord is able to make him stand. One man considers one day more sacred than another; another man considers every day alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind. He who regards one day as special, does so to the Lord. He who eats meat, eats to the Lord, for he gives thanks to God; and he who abstains, does so to the Lord and gives thanks to God. For none of us lives to himself alone and none of us dies to himself alone. If we live, we live to the Lord; and if we die, we die to the Lord. So, whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord." (Romans 14:1-8)
>What is the first? (3)
* Leviticus 23:3 "There are six days when you may work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a Sabbath to the LORD."
* "six days" -The Lord God created the earth in six days. Day here in Hebrew is "yom" and can be translated as a twenty-four hour day or any expanse of time. The word is dependant on the words and meaning around it. Here yom means a twenty-four hour day. Hebrew days start at sunset and end at sunset. Modern time has the same day starting several hours later at midnight (12 AM).
* "the seventh day" -After the Lord God created the earth in six days he rested on the seventh day. The Israelites were to rest on the seventh day as the Lord God did. By Jesus' time the Jewish leaders had put so many rules on how to rest on the seventh day they made it a burden to everyone. Many of Jesus' teachings are about the meaning of the Sabbath rest. One of the reasons the Jewish leaders wanted to kill Jesus was because they did not agree with Jesus' teachings and healing on the Sabbath.
* "Sabbath" -Sabbath is Sabbat in Hebrew. Sabbat means "intermission" and "cease" and "desist from exertion".
* Blackstone wrote in his book Jesus is Coming “The division of time into sevens, or weeks, permeates the Scriptures. A fundamental enactment of the Mosaic Law was the keeping of the Sabbath (Ex. 20:8). This was based upon Gods great rest day in Genesis 2. Upon this is founded not only the week of days, but also the week of weeks leading to Pentecost (Lev. 23:15-16); the week of months, with the Atonement and seven days feast of Tabernacles in the seventh month (Lev. 23:27-28); the week of years, ending with the Sabbatic year (Lev. 25:4); and the week of weeks of years, ending with the seventh Sabbatic year, and followed by the year of Jubilee (Lev. 25:8-12).” He continues with more and quotes 2 Peter 3:8 then continues, “…so we also have the great week of Millenniums. Six thousand-year days of labor and then the Millennium, or blessed seventh thousand-year of rest.” He is not the first to see the significance. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* Seven symbolizes completeness and perfection. God's work of creation was both complete and perfect and it was completed in seven days. All of mankind's existence was related to God's creative activity. The seven-day week reflected God's first creative activity. The Sabbath was that day of rest following the work week, reflective of God's rest (Gen. 1:1-2:4). Israelites were to remember the land also and give it a Sabbath, permitting it to lie fallow in the seventh year (Lev. 25:2-7). Seven was also important in cultic matters beyond the Sabbath: major festivals such as Passover and Tabernacles lasted seven days as did wedding festivals (Judg. 14:12,17). In Pharaoh's dream, the seven good years followed by seven years of famine (Gen. 41:1-36) represented a complete cycle of plenty and famine. Jacob worked a complete cycle of years for Rachel; then, when he was given Leah instead, he worked an additional cycle of seven (Gen. 29:15-30).
A major Hebrew word for making an oath or swearing, shava’, was closely related to the word seven, sheva’. The original meaning of swear an oath may have been “to declare seven times” or “to bind oneself by seven things. (Holman Bible Dictionary)
>What did Jesus have to say about the Sabbath? (Matt. 12:2-8; Luke 4:16, 13:14-16)
* Matthew 12:2-8 "When the Pharisees saw this, they said to him, "Look! Your disciples are doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath." He answered, "Haven't you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry? He entered the house of God, and he and his companions ate the consecrated bread--which was not lawful for them to do, but only for the priests. Or haven't you read in the Law that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple desecrate the day and yet are innocent? I tell you that one greater than the temple is here. If you had known what these words mean, 'I desire mercy, not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the innocent. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath."
* Luke 4:16 "He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. And he stood up to read."
* Luke 13:14-16 "Indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, the synagogue ruler said to the people, "There are six days for work. So come and be healed on those days, not on the Sabbath." The Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or donkey from the stall and lead it out to give it water? Then should not this woman, a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has kept bound for eighteen long years, be set free on the Sabbath day from what bound her?"
* The point of the Sabbath was to have spiritual rest in the Lord, physical rest from labor, and mental rest from planning and solving problems. The religious leaders, especially the Pharisees had point emphasis on the keeping the letter of the law while missing it true meaning. The Pharisees added many laws to the Sabbath law like how far one can walk of the Sabbath, you could not carry anything over a certain weight, no healing, etc. The ridged law stem back to Nehemiah's time when he stopped people from buying and selling on the Sabbath. (Neh. 13:15-22)
II. The Passover and Unleavened Bread (23:4-8)
* See a lithograph of Israel's escape from Egypt to the right.
>2. What is Passover to the Israelites? (1; Exodus 12:26-27; Num. 9:1-3, 28:16-17, 33:3; Deut. 16:1)
* Leviticus 23:4-5 "'These are the LORD's appointed feasts, the sacred assemblies you are to proclaim at their appointed times: The LORD's Passover begins at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month."
* Exodus 12:26-27 "And when your children ask you, 'What does this ceremony mean to you?' then tell them, 'It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.'" Then the people bowed down and worshiped."
* Numbers 9:1-3 "The LORD spoke to Moses in the Desert of Sinai in the first month of the second year after they came out of Egypt. He said, "Have the Israelites celebrate the Passover at the appointed time. Celebrate it at the appointed time, at twilight on the fourteenth day of this month, in accordance with all its rules and regulations."
* Numbers 28:16-17 "On the fourteenth day of the first month the LORD's Passover is to be held. On the fifteenth day of this month there is to be a festival; for seven days eat bread made without yeast."
* Numbers 33:3 "The Israelites set out from Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the Passover. They marched out boldly in full view of all the Egyptians"
* Deuteronomy 16:1 "Observe the month of Abib and celebrate the Passover of the LORD your God, because in the month of Abib he brought you out of Egypt by night."
* "Abib" -Abib is the name of the first month in the Hebrew calendar which has a total of twelve months. Abib is taken from the ripening of barley to reach the stage of "abib" meaning the nearly ripened crop. The month of Abib is called Nisan by modern Jews. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* "Passover" -Passover was the first Feast of the Lord in the Hebrew calendar. It is the first of a seven day event commemorating when the Lamb of God's blood saved Israel from death and slavery in Egypt. It starts with Passover and ends with the seven days Feast of Unleavened Bread with the Day of Wave Sheaf in the mist of it. (Ex. 23:19, 2 Ki. 4:42) (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
>What were they to sacrifice and eat? (Deut. 16:2, 7; Luke 22:15-20; John 6:53-58)
* Deuteronomy 16:2 "Sacrifice as the Passover to the LORD your God an animal from your flock or herd at the place the LORD will choose as a dwelling for his Name."
* Deuteronomy 16:7 "Roast it and eat it at the place the LORD your God will choose. Then in the morning return to your tents."
* Luke 22:15-20 "And he said to them, "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God." After taking the cup, he gave thanks and said, "Take this and divide it among you. For I tell you I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes." And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me." In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you."
* John 6:53-58 "Jesus said to them, "I tell you the truth, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is real food and my blood is real drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him. Just as the living Father sent me and I live because of the Father, so the one who feeds on me will live because of me. This is the bread that came down from heaven. Your forefathers ate manna and died, but he who feeds on this bread will live forever."
* "Sacrifice" -The sacrifice was not easy and was costly.
* "an animal from your flock or herd" -The Passover lamb that each family had to sacrifice and eat was to come out of their personal flocks. Their blood was drained and the meat was eaten on the evening of Abib the 14th. A lamb is a young sheep. The Passover lamb had to be without defect.
By Jesus' time Passover lambs were raised and herded in fields outside of Bethlehem. These lambs were were moved to Jerusalem for sacrifices just before Passover. Jesus and the disciples may have walked among the Passover herd when they went to Jerusalem the week before his death. The Passover lambs were raised by the priests of the temple who made a lot of money selling them. Many Jews from distant lands could not bring lambs, so they purchased them from the priests at the temple. The exchange tables were the same ones that Jesus overturned.
* "at the place the LORD will choose as a dwelling for his Name" -When Solomon dedicated the temple in Jerusalem the presence of the Lord entered it. Then Solomon said, "The LORD has kept the promise he made: I have succeeded David my father and now I sit on the throne of Israel, just as the LORD promised, and I have built the temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel. I have provided a place there for the ark, in which is the covenant of the LORD that he made with our fathers when he brought them out of Egypt." (1 Kings 8:20-21)
>How did Jesus fulfill the Passover? (John 1:29, 1:35-36; 1 Peter 1:18-20)
* John 1:29 "The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!"
* John 1:35-36 "The next day John was there again with two of his disciples. When he saw Jesus passing by, he said, "Look, the Lamb of God!"
* 1 Peter 1:18-20 "For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake."
* Throughout history the Lord has established three ways to celebrate the Passover. The first could only have been observed once; the night before the Israelites were lead out of bondage to slavery by the Lord. The second was instituted at Mount Sinai and was to be celebrated in the promised land. The third institution was when Jesus celebrated what is called The Last Supper.
* The Passover lamb pointed to Jesus death for our sins. His blood cleanses us.
* See a chart showing what has come known as Jesus' Passion Week to the right.
* A time line of Jesus' Passion week is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as thier King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven.
Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)
* Note: The Passover is linked to the 14th days of the month not the day of the week. The year Jesus was crucified Passover starting on Thursday at twilight. Starting on Thursday is a very rare event. Unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go thru the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover till sunset), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always on the first Sabbath after Passover), and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Sheaf Wave (must be on the first day of the week after Passover), and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.
>3. What does yeast represent in the Bible and how does this explain what the Lord instructed Israel in verse 6? (1 Cor. 5:6-8; Matt. 16:11-12; Gal. 5:7-12)
* Leviticus 23:6 "On the fifteenth day of that month the LORD's Feast of Unleavened Bread begins; for seven days you must eat bread made without yeast."
* Matthew 16:11-12 "How is it you don't understand that I was not talking to you about bread? But be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees." Then they understood that he was not telling them to guard against the yeast used in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees."
* 1 Corinthians 5:6-8 "Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeast works through the whole batch of dough? Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast--as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. Therefore let us keep the Festival, not with the old yeast, the yeast of malice and wickedness, but with bread without yeast, the bread of sincerity and truth."
* Galatians 5:7-12 "You were running a good race. Who cut in on you and kept you from obeying the truth? That kind of persuasion does not come from the one who calls you. "A little yeast works through the whole batch of dough." I am confident in the Lord that you will take no other view. The one who is throwing you into confusion will pay the penalty, whoever he may be. Brothers, if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been abolished. As for those agitators, I wish they would go the whole way and emasculate themselves!"
* "yeast" -Yeast in the Bible represents sin. Eating bread without yeast represented a life without sin and thus stay in communion with the Lord God. The sequence in these feasts are: first be cleansed by the blood of the lamb, second live a life free of sin, third be raise from the dead as a first fruit.
>What else were they to do during the Feast of Unleavened Bread? (7-9; Exodus 12:17-20; Num. 28:17-25; Deut. 16:8)
* Leviticus 23:7-8 "On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. For seven days present an offering made to the LORD by fire. And on the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.'"
* Exodus 12:17-20 "Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. In the first month you are to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And whoever eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel, whether he is an alien or native-born. Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat unleavened bread."
* Numbers 28:17-25 "On the fifteenth day of this month there is to be a festival; for seven days eat bread made without yeast. On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. Present to the LORD an offering made by fire, a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect. With each bull prepare a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil; with the ram, two-tenths; and with each of the seven lambs, one-tenth. Include one male goat as a sin offering to make atonement for you. Prepare these in addition to the regular morning burnt offering. In this way prepare the food for the offering made by fire every day for seven days as an aroma pleasing to the LORD; it is to be prepared in addition to the regular burnt offering and its drink offering. On the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work."
* Deuteronomy 16:8 "For six days eat unleavened bread and on the seventh day hold an assembly to the LORD your God and do no work."
* Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread are further described and explained in Exodus 12:1-30 and Exodus 13:1-16.
* "on the first day" -The Feast of Unleavened Bread started immediately after the Passover.
* "For seven days" -During the seven days they were to present an offering by first. The offering would be completely consumed by the fire.
* "on the seventh day" -The Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted seven days. The first and the last day all Israel had to assemble, do no work, and worship the Lord.
* The Feast of Unleavened Bread was to commemorate how the Lord lead the Israelites out of Egypt. Since they left after the night of Passover the Feast of Unleavened Bread always started immediately after Passover. They had to leave in haste. So they brought unleavened bread with them that they had prepared the day before. After that bread ran out the Lord provided manna.
III. First Fruits (23:9-14)
* See a picture of barley to the right.
>4. What was the priest to do with the very first harvest of grain? (9-11; Exodus 23:16)
* Leviticus 23:9-11 "The LORD said to Moses, "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'When you enter the land I am going to give you and you reap its harvest, bring to the priest a sheaf of the first grain you harvest. He is to wave the sheaf before the LORD so it will be accepted on your behalf; the priest is to wave it on the day after the Sabbath."
* Exodus 23:16 "Celebrate the Feast of Harvest with the firstfruits of the crops you sow in your field. Celebrate the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in your crops from the field."
* The barley harvest in Palestine is in the spring and the wheat harvest is in the fall.
* "Feast of Harvest" -The barley crop is in the spring. Barley was one of the first domesticated grains in the Fertile Crescent, an area of relatively abundant water in Western Asia and near the Nile river of north-east Africa. The grain appeared in the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat. Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ranges from North Africa and Crete in the west, to Tibet in the east. The earliest evidence of wild barley in an archaeological context comes from the Epipaleolithic at Ohalo II at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. The remains were dated to about 8,500 B.C.
* "Feast of Ingathering" -The wheat harvest in the fall.
* "wave the sheaf before the LORD" -Only the priest could wave the sheaf. The farmer could not wave the sheaf. In order to wave it before the Lord the sheaf would have to be brought to the priests. Priests were all over Israel, not only in Jerusalem.
* "the first grain you harvest" -The sheaf had to be the very first because it foreshadowed Jesus' resurrection and our resurrection.
* The Waving of the Barley Sheaf came in the middle of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.
>What else were they to do on that day? (12-14)
* Leviticus 23:12-14 "On the day you wave the sheaf, you must sacrifice as a burnt offering to the LORD a lamb a year old without defect, together with its grain offering of two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil--an offering made to the LORD by fire, a pleasing aroma--and its drink offering of a quarter of a hin of wine. You must not eat any bread, or roasted or new grain, until the very day you bring this offering to your God. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live."
* Even though the Waving of the Barley Sheaf was in the middle of the Feast of Unleavened Bread it still had its own sacrifices.
>How did this foreshadow Jesus' resurrection? (1 Cor. 15:20-23)
* 1 Corinthians 15:20-23 "But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive. But each in his own turn: Christ, the firstfruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him."
* The barley harvest in Palestine is in the spring and the wheat harvest is in the fall. Jesus is the barley harvest and we are the wheat harvest.
>And someday ours? (James 1:18; Rom. 8:23)
* James 1:18 "He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created."
* Romans 8:23 "Not only so, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies."
* Those who believe in Jesus, his death for our sins, and his resurrection will be raised as "a kind of firstfruits of all he created". After the 1,000 year reign of Christ Revelations says that a new heaven and a new earth will be created.
* The Holy Spirit that the Lord has poured on all his people since Pentecost is a first fruit to the presence of the Spirit when Jesus comes again and his followers receive their resurrection bodies.
* Revelation 14:4-5 "These are those who did not defile themselves with women, for they kept themselves pure. They follow the Lamb wherever he goes. They were purchased from among men and offered as firstfruits to God and the Lamb. No lie was found in their mouths; they are blameless."
IV. Feast of Weeks (23:15-22)
>5. How many days were they to count off for the next feast? (15; Deut: 16:9)
* Leviticus 23:15 "From the day after the Sabbath, the day you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, count off seven full weeks."
* "the day after the Sabbath" -The day of they were to wave the sheaf was to the the first Sunday after the Passover. The year Jesus died and rose Passover and The Feast of First Fruits were three days apart.
* "the day you brought the sheaf of the wave offering" -The count of weeks was to start on the sheaf wave offering.
* Omar is what the Jews call the count from the Feast of First Fruits to Pentecost. The day of Omar is in the second month and is part of the count of seven weeks. (1 Cor. 15:23) Omar’s 49 days correspond to the time between Israel's physical emancipation from Egypt (starting on Passover) to the time of Israel's spiritual liberation at the giving of the Torah (Law, the first five books) at the foot of Mount Sinai. The last day of Omar marking the giving of the Torah is called Shavuot. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* The Greek word pentekoste means fifty.
>What were they to do? (16-21; Deut: 16:10-12)
* Leviticus 23:16-21 "Count off fifty days up to the day after the seventh Sabbath, and then present an offering of new grain to the LORD. From wherever you live, bring two loaves made of two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour, baked with yeast, as a wave offering of firstfruits to the LORD. Present with this bread seven male lambs, each a year old and without defect, one young bull and two rams. They will be a burnt offering to the LORD, together with their grain offerings and drink offerings--an offering made by fire, an aroma pleasing to the LORD. Then sacrifice one male goat for a sin offering and two lambs, each a year old, for a fellowship offering. The priest is to wave the two lambs before the LORD as a wave offering, together with the bread of the firstfruits. They are a sacred offering to the LORD for the priest. On that same day you are to proclaim a sacred assembly and do no regular work. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live."
* Deuteronomy 16:10-12 "Then celebrate the Feast of Weeks to the LORD your God by giving a freewill offering in proportion to the blessings the LORD your God has given you. And rejoice before the LORD your God at the place he will choose as a dwelling for his Name--you, your sons and daughters, your menservants and maidservants, the Levites in your towns, and the aliens, the fatherless and the widows living among you. Remember that you were slaves in Egypt, and follow carefully these decrees."
* "present an offering of new grain to the LORD" -They had to labor to give this offering.
* "bring two loaves made of two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour, baked with yeast, as a wave offering of firstfruits to the LORD" -Later to represent the two houses of Israel; Ephraim and Judah.
* "as a wave offering of firstfruits to the LORD" -The two loaves were similar to the firstfruits grain offering in verses 9-14.
* "seven male lambs, each a year old and without defect, one young bull and two rams"
* "a burnt offering to the LORD, together with their grain offerings and drink offerings--an offering made by fire" -The Lord's portion totally consumed by him.
* "sacrifice one male goat for a sin offering and two lambs, each a year old, for a fellowship offering. The priest is to wave the two lambs before the LORD as a wave offering, together with the bread of the firstfruits" -for the priest.
* "proclaim a sacred assembly and do no regular work"
>How was this fulfilled? (Acts 1:3, 2:1-4)
* Acts 1:3 "After his suffering, he showed himself to these men and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive. He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spoke about the kingdom of God."
* Acts 2:1-4 "When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. Suddenly a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them."
* Shavuot is in the third month and is not explicit in the Bible because it only marks the conclusion of the counting of the Omar. Shavuot was later called Pentecost (fifty in Greek). Pentecost is the day that the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus' disciples with visible tongues of fire. (Acts 2:1-4) (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* This day foreshadowed the giving of the Holy Spirit.
* The interesting fact to be learned from the first holidays is that Israel, the Lord's first bride, was called into existence as a nation in the same way as the beginning of the Lord’s second bride, the church. (Matt. 26:2, 26-27) The Hebrew feasts just mentioned were a shadow pointing to the start of the age of the Preaching of the Good News of the Kingdom of God. Also, the count of days is exact for both. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
V. Feast of Trumpets (23:23-25)
* See a picture of rams horns (shophars) to the right.
>6. What were they to do on the first day of the seventh month? (23-25)
* Leviticus 23:23-25 "The LORD said to Moses, "Say to the Israelites: 'On the first day of the seventh month you are to have a day of rest, a sacred assembly commemorated with trumpet blasts. Do no regular work, but present an offering made to the LORD by fire.'"
* The first and second day of the seventh month is the first of the fall feasts. In Hebrew it is called Zicaron Terua, meaning "a memorial with the blowing of horns" (Lev. 23:23-25, Num. 29:1-6). Numbers 29:1 calls it the festival of Yom Teruah, meaning "Day of blowing the trumpet (horn)". (Modern Jewish celebration Rosh Hashanah, meaning Head of the Year, is not the same).
* Seven symbolizes completeness and perfection.
* Each month the priest was to stand on the temple mount in Jerusalem and watch the night sky. He waited while there was no moon. The moon is hidden for two to three days. The moment the priest saw the first sliver of the new moon he blew a trumpet. This would start a chain of trumpets that would blow all throughout Israel. This was important to cultivating cultures before everyone had calendars.
* No one knows the time or day the new moon will appear. The first appearance of the new moon is very hard to calculate, even in today's computer world because of so many changing variables (i.e. the earth's rotation changes with violent earthquakes, the earth wobbles as it spins, the moon's orbit is slowly decaying, the moon orbit around the earth is elliptical, the earth's orbit around the sun changes, the earth's orbit about the sun is elliptical, etc.)
* See a picture of two silver trumpets to the right.
>What were trumpets and rams horns used for? (Num. 10:1-10)
* Numbers 10:1-10 "The LORD said to Moses: "Make two trumpets of hammered silver, and use them for calling the community together and for having the camps set out. When both are sounded, the whole community is to assemble before you at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. If only one is sounded, the leaders--the heads of the clans of Israel--are to assemble before you. When a trumpet blast is sounded, the tribes camping on the east are to set out. At the sounding of a second blast, the camps on the south are to set out. The blast will be the signal for setting out. To gather the assembly, blow the trumpets, but not with the same signal. The sons of Aaron, the priests, are to blow the trumpets. This is to be a lasting ordinance for you and the generations to come. When you go into battle in your own land against an enemy who is oppressing you, sound a blast on the trumpets. Then you will be remembered by the LORD your God and rescued from your enemies. Also at your times of rejoicing--your appointed feasts and New Moon festivals--you are to sound the trumpets over your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, and they will be a memorial for you before your God. I am the LORD your God."
* Originally the Lord said each month should begin by observing the first appearance of a new crescent moon. At that time they were to blow a trumpet. (Num. 10:10, Ps. 81:2-4)
* Numbers 10:1-10 and Joshua 6:1-20 state the reasons to blow a trumpet. They are; to call the community together, to call the elders together, to have the Israel camp set out, before going into battle, during a battle, taking a city, at the beginning of each month (new moon), during the time of rejoicing, during the holy feasts, and over burnt offerings and fellowship offerings.
* Basically trumpets were used for announcements for something coming or happening.
>7. When will this be fulfilled? (Matt. 24:30-31; Isaiah 27:12-13; and 1 Thess. 4:13-18; and 1 Cor. 15:50-54)
* Matthew 24:30-31 "At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other."
* Matthew 13:30 "Let both grow together until the harvest. At that time I will tell the harvesters: First collect the weeds and tie them in bundles to be burned; then gather the wheat and bring it into my barn.'"
* Isaiah 27:12-13 records worshipers being gathered at a trumpets sounding. It states, “In that day the Lord will thresh from the flowing Euphrates to the Wadi of Egypt, and you, O Israelites, will be gathered up one by one. And in that day a great trumpet will sound. Those who were perishing in Assyria and those who were exiled in Egypt will come and worship the Lord on the holy mountain in Jerusalem.” This seems to be the threshing Jesus spoke of in Matthew 13.
* 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 states, “Brothers, we do not want you to be ignorant about those who fall asleep, or to grieve like the rest of men, who have no hope. We believe that Jesus died and rose again and so we believe that God will bring with Jesus those who have fallen asleep in him. According to the Lord's own word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left till the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up (rapture in Latin) together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. Therefore encourage each other with these words.” John 5:28-29 record Jesus saying this. “And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be where I am.” (John 14:3)
* 1 Corinthians 15:50-54 states that at the last trumpet is when Jesus' bride will receive their resurrection bodies. It states, “I declare to you, brothers, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed-- in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For the perishable must clothe itself with the imperishable, and the mortal with immortality. When the perishable has been clothed with the imperishable, and the mortal with immortality, then the saying that is written will come true: "Death has been swallowed up in victory." Many in recent years have been confused by this “trumpet” and ignore the word “last”.
* The book of Revelation chapters 8 through 11 look forward to the sounding of seven trumpets during the Tribulation; and 4:1 records, the voice like a trumpet said, ‘Come up here...’" The six blasts in chapters 8 and 9 are judgments. The last according to 1 Cor. 15 is the rapture.
* Revelation records seven trumpets sounding. When the last of the seven trumpets sounds several things will happen including Jesus physically arriving on earth as King. Revelation 11:15-18 states, “The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said: ‘The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign forever and ever.’ And the twenty-four elders, who were seated on their thrones before God, fell on their faces and worshipped God, saying: "We give thanks to you, Lord God Almighty, the One who is and who was, because you have taken your great power and have begun to reign. The nations were angry; and your wrath has come. The time has come for judging the dead, and for rewarding your servants the prophets and your saints and those who reverence your name, both small and great-- and for destroying those who destroy the earth."
* Jesus himself said, “At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. [Also in Rev. 6:15.] And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.” (Matt. 24:30-31) Jesus is speaking as Revelation has recorded the ending of the age we are in and the beginning of the next age.
* The Feast of Trumpets (Yom Terium) proclaims the bride’s resurrection, God's judgment on the wicked, and Jesus' second coming.
* Isaiah 18:3 states, “All you people of the world, you who live on the earth, when a banner is raised on the mountains, you will see it, and when a trumpet sounds, you will hear it.”
* Some say the trumpet calling us to Jesus is recorded in Revelation. 1:10-11. It states, “On the Lord's Day I was in the Spirit, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet..." The voice like a trumpet was Jesus speaking. After scribing for Jesus letters to the seven churches, John then wrote, “After this I looked, and there before me was a door standing open in heaven. And the voice I had first heard speaking to me like a trumpet said, "Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this." (Rev. 4:1) Then the seven trumpets of Revelation are sounded a few chapters later.
Some believe Jesus saying to John, “Come up here,” is the time of the rapture. They say this is the trumpet calling the bride to rise from the grave if deceased and those alive joining them in the air to eventually be taken to heaven, the home Jesus has prepared for his bride. There are two problems with this understanding. First, John did not specifically say that the second time the trumpet voice spoke to him that it sounded like a trumpet.
Second, since this is before the seven trumpets of Revelation how can it be the last trumpet? What trumpets are before it? One stretched possibility is that Israel was to sound a trumpet at the beginning of each month when the crescent of the moon is first seen. (This could take two or three days; no one really knew for sure). Since the Feast of Trumpets is at the first day of the seventh month, then there could be six months trumpets before this one. But they are not recorded in the Bible. Second, since as some believe there are seven ages and the Millennium is the seventh, then it is possible that the sounding of the trumpet to mark the beginning of this feast and month is the last of seven “age” trumpets. But they are not recorded in the Bible.
The simplest solution is that, “Come up here was only to John and it does not foreshadow the rapture. Rather the rapture is the last of the seven trumpets in Revelation. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
>What events in history foreshadowed this? (Ex. 19-20 with Hebrews 12:18-29; Joshua 5-6)
* Jesus’ bride can also learn about his coming as King of kings and Lord of lords on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem by looking back to the time when Israel was led out of Egypt to Mount Sinai to receive the law of God. At that time the Lord became their King a trumpet blasted and the mountain shook and was ablaze with fire and smoke for the Lord descended onto the mountain in fire, and there was lightning and thunder. The Israelites could not approach the mountain because of their sins and needed to be consecrated and have their clothes washed. Moses was told, “Only when the ram's horn sounds a long blast may they go up to the mountain." (Ex. 19-20) Hebrews 12:18-29 tells us that Israel at Mount Sinai foreshadows Jesus' second coming.
* We can also learn about Jesus’ coming at the sounding of trumpets from his leading Israel into the Promised Land. Jericho was the first city to be taken. (Jos. 5) During the battle the Lord did all the fighting. The Israelites were told to march around the city once a day for seven days with seven priest blowing seven trumpets at the front of the procession. On the last day they sounded the trumpets and the Lord tore down the walls and the Israelites took the city. (Jos. 6) The Lord tells us this now so that we will understand what he is soon to do upon his return. The seven trumpets of Revelation will sound and evil doers will perish and the righteous will take possession of the land.
* Isaiah 29:5-8 also reveals that Jesus’ second coming as King of the Kingdom of God is as the Lord God came down Mount Sinai to became Israel's king. It states, “But your many enemies will become like fine dust, the ruthless hordes like blown chaff. Suddenly, in an instant, the Lord Almighty will come with thunder and earthquake and great noise, with wind storm and tempest and flames of a devouring fire. Then the hordes of all the nations that fight against Ariel (Jerusalem), that attack her and her fortress and besiege her, will be as it is with a dream, with a vision in the night-- as when a hungry man dreams that he is eating, but he awakens, and his hunger remains; as when a thirsty man dreams that he is drinking, but he awakens faint, with his thirst unquenched. So will it be with the hordes of all the nations that fight against Mount Zion.” The armies assembled at Megiddo will see Jesus come in glory to Jerusalem.
* Add to this the prophetic regathering of both houses of Israel. (Isaiah 18:3, 7, 27:12-13, 48:1-14; Joel 2:15-32)
VI. Day of Atonement (23:26-32)
* See a picture of the Bema Seat at Corinth to the right.
>8. What was the second feast in the seventh month? (26-28)
* Leviticus 23:26-28 "The LORD said to Moses, "The tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. Hold a sacred assembly and deny yourselves, and present an offering made to the LORD by fire. Do no work on that day, because it is the Day of Atonement, when atonement is made for you before the LORD your God."
* "the Day of Atonement" -The day of Atonement and Awe in Hebrew is Yom Kippur.
* Yom Kippur is on the 10th day.
* The Day of Atonement and The Feast of Trumpets are connected. They are called the High Holy Days. The Feast of Trumpets is the first of the High Holidays, followed by ten holy days, and ends on the Day of Atonement. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* The High Holidays are also called Yamim Noraim, meaning "Days of Awe"; and Asseret Yemei Teshuva, meaning “Ten Days of Repentance.” The High Holidays are specifically set aside to focus on the wonder and fear of the Lord and on repentance. (Ex. 30:10, Lev. 16:1-34, 23:27-32, 25:1-55, Num. 29:7-11) (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* Yom means "day" in Hebrew. When the first English translators came upon the word kippur they discovered there was no English equivalent. So they created the word “atonement” by joining “at”, “one”, and “met”. The Day of Atonement marks the time when Jesus' bride and those who made it through the seven years of wrath will be gathered before Jesus’ throne in Jerusalem at the great banquet feast of the Lamb. There will be great celebration and joy for several days. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* Kippur comes from a root Hebrew word that means "to cover or hide"; a secondary meaning is "to obliterate (sin)" and hence "to expiate". There is a link to the Hebrew word kapporet meaning the mercy seat. 2 Corinthians 5:10 and Romans 14:10 tell us that believers will be brought into examination before the Son of God, the King and their Bridegroom. (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* The New Testament uses the Greek word “bema” for this judgment seat. Bema means a raised platform which had a seat on it. Sale-Harrison wrote in the book The Judgment Seat of Christ, “In the Grecian games in Athens, the old arena contained a raised platform on which the president or umpire of the arena sat. From here he rewarded all the contestants; and here he rewarded all winners. It was never used as a judicial bench.” Paul used the Athens games as an example of his goal to gain a prize and a crown. (1 Cor. 9:24-27, and 2 Tim. 2:5, 4:6-8, Phil. 4:1, and 1 Th. 2:19) (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* The Day of Atonement is a special holiday, especially every forty-nine years. Leviticus 25:8-13 states, “'Count off seven Sabbaths of years--seven times seven years--so that the seven Sabbaths of years amount to a period of forty-nine years. Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the Day of Atonement sound the trumpet throughout your land. Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you; each one of you is to return to his family property and each to his own clan. The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not sow and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines. For it is a jubilee and is to be holy for you; eat only what is taken directly from the fields. In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return to his own property.”
* See The Bema Seat Chart by Dr. Walter D. Huyck Jr. to the right.
>What were they to do? (29-32)
* Leviticus 23:29-32 "Anyone who does not deny himself on that day must be cut off from his people. I will destroy from among his people anyone who does any work on that day. You shall do no work at all. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live. It is a Sabbath of rest for you, and you must deny yourselves. From the evening of the ninth day of the month until the following evening you are to observe your Sabbath."
* "deny himself on that day"
* "must be cut off from his people"
* "You shall do no work at all"
* "It is a Sabbath of rest for you"
* "you must deny yourselves"
>When will this be fulfilled?
* In Ezekiel 40:1 there is a general reference that the High Holidays are the "beginning of the year.” Exodus 23:16 and 34:22 also seem to indicate this. Why call the seventh of twelve months the first day of the year? The end of the Feast of Trumpets and the beginning of the Day of Atonement is the first day of the year because it marks the beginning of Jesus’ reign on earth.
* Thus, Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) is when each of Jesus’ loved ones meets him face-to-face. We will see him with our own eyes and he will judge our deeds done in this life. As we approach his radiant glory, glory of staggering proportions, his light will burn away all that is not pleasing. As we approach him all that will be left in us is the good deeds we did in this life.
* The Day of Atonement is described by Paul in his first letter to the Corinthians. “For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ. If any man builds on this foundation using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw, his work will be shown for what it is, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each man's work. If what he has built survives, he will receive his reward. If it is burned up, he will suffer loss; he himself will be saved, but only as one escaping through the flames.” (1 Cor. 3:11-15)
What does gold, silver and costly stones represent? What will survive? Later in his first letter to the Corinthians Paul tells us, “And now these remain faith, hope and love.” (1 Cor. 13:13a) When Jesus' loved ones come before their King and Bridegroom his glory will burn away all that was not done with faith, hope, and love. All that will remain is what was done with faith in Jesus, hope in his kingdom, and love for him and others. This day marks the day when Jesus will give rewards to his bride according to what they did during their first lives. (Rev. 22:12, 5:10, 4:2, 1:5-6, and 2 Cor. 5:10, and 1 Cor. 6:2, Dan. 7:22, 12:1-13, Luke 19:11-27, Matt. 25:14-30, Jam. 1:12, and 1 Pet. 5:4, etc.)
Every kind act of love, no matter how small, even giving a glass of water will be rewarded. Every act of faith, even as small as a mustard seed will be rewarded. Every parent’s sacrifice for their children, even changing diapers will be rewarded. Every person we witnessed to, even if they did not accept it will be rewarded. Every person we encouraged even if they did not thank us will be rewarded. Every person we ministered to, no matter the age, race, or response will be rewarded. Every persecution we endured with love, faith, and hope will be rewarded. Every child who obeyed their parents will be rewarded. Every spouse who did not divorce even though their love was not returned will be rewarded. Every cheek turned will be rewarded. Every prayer said for one’s enemy will be rewarded. Every temptation resisted because of hope in Jesus will be rewarded. Every Bible teacher will be rewarded. The saying, “No good deed goes unpunished,” is false. The saying should be, “Jesus will reward his bride for every good deed when we meet him at the mercy seat.” (From "The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires" found on this web site.)
* In Romans 11 Paul clearly teaches that Israel has a place in the future. When he writes, "And so all Israel will be saved," he dates this salvation as the time when God "shall take away their sins". (Rom 11:26-27) The Day of Atonement in Israel's religious calendar appropriately pointed to Israel's final day of salvation, when the Israel nation (from their leaders to the least) would accept Jesus as their Messiah. (Deut. 30:1-10; Rom. 11:1-36) (from "Leviticus, A Self-Study Guide" by Irving L. Jensen)
VII. Feast of Tabernacles (23:33-44)
>10. When was the Feast of Tabernacles to be celebrated? (33-36; Num. 29:12; Deut. 16:13)
* Leviticus 23:33-36 "The LORD said to Moses, "Say to the Israelites: 'On the fifteenth day of the seventh month the LORD's Feast of Tabernacles begins, and it lasts for seven days. The first day is a sacred assembly; do no regular work. For seven days present offerings made to the LORD by fire, and on the eighth day hold a sacred assembly and present an offering made to the LORD by fire. It is the closing assembly; do no regular work.
* Numbers 29:12 "On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. Celebrate a festival to the LORD for seven days."
* Deuteronomy 16:13 "Celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles for seven days after you have gathered the produce of your threshing floor and your winepress."
* The Feast of Tents or Booths is called Sukkot in Hebrew.
* The third holiday in the seventh month is the Feast of Tents or Booths (Sukkot). It lasts seven days. It’s associated with the harvest and thus also called the Feast of Ingathering. (Num. 29:12-40) After its seven days it is immediately followed by another festive day, Shemini Atzeret. Exodus 23:16, 34:22, Duet. 16:13-15, Ezek. 45:25 and Neh. 8:14-18 all speak of it.
* Moses instructed the children of Israel to gather for a reading of the Law during Sukkot every seventh year. (Deut. 31:10-11) King Solomon dedicated the Temple in Jerusalem on Sukkot. (1 Kings 8; 2 Chron. 7) Sukkot was the first sacred occasion observed after the resumption of sacrifices in Jerusalem following the Babylonian captivity. (Ezra 3:2-4)
>What was the eight days to include and why? (39-43; Num. 29:13-38; Deut. 16:14-15)
* Leviticus 23:39-43 "So beginning with the fifteenth day of the seventh month, after you have gathered the crops of the land, celebrate the festival to the LORD for seven days; the first day is a day of rest, and the eighth day also is a day of rest. On the first day you are to take choice fruit from the trees, and palm fronds, leafy branches and poplars, and rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days. Celebrate this as a festival to the LORD for seven days each year. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come; celebrate it in the seventh month. Live in booths for seven days: All native-born Israelites are to live in booths so your descendants will know that I had the Israelites live in booths when I brought them out of Egypt. I am the LORD your God."
* Deuteronomy 16:14-15 "Be joyful at your Feast--you, your sons and daughters, your menservants and maidservants, and the Levites, the aliens, the fatherless and the widows who live in your towns. For seven days celebrate the Feast to the LORD your God at the place the LORD will choose. For the LORD your God will bless you in all your harvest and in all the work of your hands, and your joy will be complete."
* Numbers 29:13-38 "Present an offering made by fire as an aroma pleasing to the LORD, a burnt offering of thirteen young bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
14 With each of the thirteen bulls prepare a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil; with each of the two rams, two-tenths;
15 and with each of the fourteen lambs, one-tenth.
16 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering.
17 "'On the second day prepare twelve young bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
18 With the bulls, rams and lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
19 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering, and their drink offerings.
20 "'On the third day prepare eleven bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
21 With the bulls, rams and lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
22 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering.
23 "'On the fourth day prepare ten bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
24 With the bulls, rams and lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
25 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering.
26 "'On the fifth day prepare nine bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
27 With the bulls, rams and lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
28 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering.
29 "'On the sixth day prepare eight bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
30 With the bulls, rams and lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
31 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering.
32 "'On the seventh day prepare seven bulls, two rams and fourteen male lambs a year old, all without defect.
33 With the bulls, rams and lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
34 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering.
35 "'On the eighth day hold an assembly and do no regular work.
36 Present an offering made by fire as an aroma pleasing to the LORD, a burnt offering of one bull, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect.
37 With the bull, the ram and the lambs, prepare their grain offerings and drink offerings according to the number specified.
38 Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the regular burnt offering with its grain offering and drink offering."
* "after you have gathered the crops" -After the harvest each year and at the end of this age.
* "celebrate" -This is a time of rejoicing and feasting.
>When will this be fulfilled? (Zech. 14:16-19)
* Zechariah 14:16-19 "Then the survivors from all the nations that have attacked Jerusalem will go up year after year to worship the King, the LORD Almighty, and to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. If any of the peoples of the earth do not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD Almighty, they will have no rain. If the Egyptian people do not go up and take part, they will have no rain. The LORD will bring on them the plague he inflicts on the nations that do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. This will be the punishment of Egypt and the punishment of all the nations that do not go up to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles."
* According to Zechariah 14:1-4 and Micah 4:2, in the Millennium, Sukkot will become a universal festival and all nations will make pilgrimages annually to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast there.
* Here is Isael at rest in the Kingdom after the nation's regathering and restoration. (Ezra 3:4; Zech. 14:16-19; Rev. 21:3)