The Lord's Supper
Comments for Study 31
Memory Verse: 26:26b-28
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* Jesus had just left the temple where he pronounced woes against the religious leaders and cried for Jerusalem. A time line is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as their King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matthew 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matthew 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matthew 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matthew 27:57-66; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven. (1 Peter 3:18-20)
Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)
* Note: The Passover is linked to the 14th day of the month not the day of the week. Passover starting on Thursday at twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go through the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always on the first Sabbath after Passover), and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Sheaf Wave, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.
I. Jesus Anointed at Bethany (1-16)
>1. What is the time?
* Matthew 26:1-2a "When Jesus had finished saying all these things, he said to his disciples, As you know, the Passover is two days away..."
* "When Jesus had finished saying all these things" -Earlier in the day (Tuesday) Jesus had been teaching in the temple for the last time. Then Jesus answered questions his disciples had concerning the end of the age. Now Jesus directs his disciples attention back to the present. (Note: I did not record all the events of Tuesday in the list above.) The sun was setting, perhaps they had stopped here to rest and grab a snack before heading off to Bethany for the evening meal.
* "he said to his disciples" -Jesus was not finished teaching his disciples.
* "the Passover is two days away" -The Passover was a very important remembrance day for the Israelites. The Passover marked the time when God lead the Israelites out of Egypt. God had sent several plagues to Egypt and Pharaoh, to convince him to let Israel go free. Still Pharaoh would not let the Israelites out of Egypt. The last plague was the plague of death. The Israelites did not die if they put the blood of an unblemished lamb over their doorposts. Passover comes from the fact that the angel of death passed over their houses. (Ex. 12) With the pleague of death on Egypt the Israelites were released. God established twilight of the fourteenth day of their first month a yearly commemoration. (Lev. 23)
* The Feast of Unleavened Bread celebrates the day that Israel came out of slavery in Egypt. (Ex. 23:14-19, 34:18) It starts on the fifteenth day of the first month, the month of Abid and lasts seven days. (Exodus 12; Leviticus 23:4-8) The fourteenth is the day the Passover meal is eaten. The Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread was one of the three annual feasts that every Israelite was required to celebrate in Jerusalem (Duet. 16:16-17)
* The Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were considered the most holy celebrations along with Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).
* Unblemished lambs that were meant for slaughter would have been in the process of being moved from fields and pens in the Bethlehem area to Jerusalem. All day during the Passover these lambs would be slaughtered, A steady river of blood and water would flow out drainage sewers that started on the temple mount, ran underneath it, and out it's eastern walls into the Kidron Valley. The small brook at the valley's base was said to overflow with bloody water.
* The population of Jerusalem swelled to around two million at this time. People stayed in Jerusalem and the surrounding villages.
>What is Jesus' situation?
* Matthew 26:2 "As you know, the Passover is two days away--and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified."
* "the Son of Man" -A term Jesus often used from the Old Testament to refer to himself.
* "will be handed over to be crucified" -Jesus had told them this over and over again for the last six months, ever since Peter confess that Jesus was the Messiah (Christ in Greek), the Holy One of God. (Matthew 16)
* Planting the reality of Jesus' sufferings in their hearts was good because
1) It was offset the teaching of their own sufferings
2) They would be able to prepare for the day that the tragic and glorious events began.
>What were the religious leaders doing? (3-5)
* Matthew 26:3-5 "Then the chief priests and the elders of the people assembled in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas, and they plotted to arrest Jesus in some sly way and kill him. 'But not during the Feast,' they said, 'or there may be a riot among the people.'"
* "chief priests" -A group of men, at this time all related, who controlled everything that went on at the temple mount.
* "the elders" -An elder is a prominent members of both Jewish and early Christian communities. In the Old Testament, elder usually translates the Hebrew word "zaqen" from a root which means “beard” or “chin.” In the New Testament, the Greek word is "presbuteros", which is transliterated in English as “presbyter”. The elders mentioned here were apparently members of leading families, had some authority but were not the principal leaders in either religious or political affairs. Elders did have leading roles in the government of synagogues and after the fall of the Temple became even more central to Jewish religious life. (Holman Bible Dictionary)
* "assembled" -With so much work required at the temple and in their homes for the feasts preparations you would think the activities of one country preacher wouldn't be that important to them. Yet any threat to their proud authority was more important to them then maintaining the activities of their offices and requirements from God. (Leviticus 21:10-12)
* "the palace" -The high priest lived an a palace while Jesus was required to sleep in fields with a rock as his pillow.
* "the high priest" -The man over all the other priests. God required him to keep the office for life. Yet at this time, Herod and then the Romans changed high priests out when they did not like them.
* "Caiaphas" -Recently it is reported that a type of burial box with this family name was found near Jerusalem. He was the son-in-law of Annas who served from 6-15 A.D. (Luke 3:2; John 18:12-14; 24) Caiaphas was appointed high priest about A.D. 18 and removed from office about A.D. 36 or 37.
* John 12:17-19 "Now the crowd that was with him when he called Lazarus from the tomb and raised him from the dead continued to spread the word. Many people, because they had heard that he had given this miraculous sign, went out to meet him. So the Pharisees said to one another, 'See, this is getting us nowhere. Look how the whole world has gone after him!'"
* John 12:37-43 "Even after Jesus had done all these miraculous signs in their presence, they still would not believe in him. This was to fulfill the word of Isaiah the prophet: "Lord, who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?" For this reason they could not believe, because, as Isaiah says elsewhere: "He has blinded their eyes and deadened their hearts, so they can neither see with their eyes, nor understand with their hearts, nor turn--and I would heal them." Isaiah said this because he saw Jesus' glory and spoke about him. Yet at the same time many even among the leaders believed in him. But because of the Pharisees they would not confess their faith for fear they would be put out of the synagogue; for they loved praise from men more than praise from God."
* "But not during the Feast" -The religious leaders plans were to wait until after the Feast. Jesus' plan was to die on the Passover, as fulfillment of it's prophecy. Jesus was in control, not the leaders. Jesus' will was done. This few short verses that Matthew gives contrasts the different ideas as to when Jesus would die. God's will which was also Jesus' will, prevailed.
* "riot" -They were not concerned that it was a holy day and that the high priest was to have nothing to do with a dead body, but they feared the people rioting. When Jesus entered Jerusalem on a colt (donkey) the city had been in a joyous uproar, convincing the religious leaders that all the people loved Jesus. (21:10; John 12:17-19)
* "and kill him" -The law requires that every Israelite was to be tried before they could be given a sentence. The whole nature of the cities of refuge was in the same spirit. (Numbers 35:6-34; Deuteronomy 4:41-43; Deuteronomy 19; Joshua 20) Only Jesus' death would satisfy them.
* The religious leaders never did accept Jesus' ministry, just as they didn't John the Baptist. They did not accept anything that they could control.
* Superficially, they had been upset about his overturning the money tables in the temple (21:12), something he had done at least once before (John 3). Also superficially, they had been upset about the children saying, "Hosanna" when he entered Jerusalem on a donkey. (21:16) Added to this they must have heard about the woes he pronounced while teaching in the temple.
* The true problem was that they were children of the darkness and acted as such. They were not of God, opposing his will. They were proud and selfish, following the selfish needs of the flesh. They were afraid that his popularity would mean the end to their lock over the people.
* The leaders realized that he would have to be killed after the Passover, but before the Seven days of Unleavened Bread was over for after that they would assume that he would travel into other areas, avoiding Jerusalem as he did before.
* They knew that after the feast the Romans would leave Jerusalem and go back to the regional Roman power base and government, Caesarea. Since they didn't want to be accused of killing a popular man, they wanted the Romans to kill him. If they arrested Jesus after the Romans left, it would be impossible for them to keep their involvement secret.
* "sly" -Meaning they were going to have the Romans do it because they didn't want to be blamed for it.
>2. Where was Jesus? (6)
* Matthew 26:6 "While Jesus was in Bethany in the home of a man known as Simon the Leper,"
* "Bethany" -Bethany was located beyond the Mt. of Olives eastern slope, Bethany sat about two miles (5km)” (John 11:18) south-east of Jerusalem, almost an hour walk. The road that went through it eventually made its way to Jericho. Bethany was the home of Martha, Mary, and Lazarus. The raising of Lazarus occurred in Bethany. (John 11:1,14,15,18)
* "Simon the Leper" -Simon at one time had been a leper. Jesus must have healed him. The man must have been well known by the disciples from this time on.
* Luke chapter 7 records a similar event much earlier in Jesus' ministry at the home of Simon the Pharisee. The two are separate events.
>Describe the event that occurred during dinner?
* Matthew 26:7 "a woman came to him with an alabaster jar of very expensive perfume, which she poured on his head as he was reclining at the table."
* "a women" -John records that her name was Mary. (John 12) Martha her sister was serving (as usual) and Lazarus was there too.
* "alabaster jar" -John records that the jar held a pint (half a liter) of the perfume.
* "very expensive perfume" -John records it was nard, worth three hundred denarii (a year's wages). Nard is derived from the roots of the herb nardostachys jatamansi. The term appears twice in the Song of Solomon (1:12; 4:13-14).
* "perfume" -Unmarried women saved up perfume for the day of their wedding day and to help establish their new home. The modern dowry would be similar.
* That amount of perfume would have been pungent.
* "poured on his head" -This fact is one of several that make this event and Luke's recorded event different events. When David became king Samuel anointed his head. (Ps. 23:5)
* "relining at the table" -Tables in ancient Palestine were very short with no chairs. Cushions were often scattered around for reclining, though often people might recline on each other or the table.
>Why might this woman have acted in this way? (cf. Lk. 7:47a)
* Luke 7:47a "'Therefore, I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven--for she loved much.'"
* Although the two events are not the same, the women in Luke chapter seven could have started a movement of women who did this, including Mary.
* Jesus regarded this as an act of love and respect.
* She was thankful. Her act was an act of faith.
* When we love Jesus no act honoring him will be rejected.
* She must have been thinking about Jesus while at home. She must have made a decision to do this for him, giving up her highest hopes of marriage and her future.
* When women love Jesus they can become bold in expressing their love for him.
>3. How did the disciples react? (cf. Jn. 12:4-6)
* Matthew 26:8-9 "When the disciples saw this, they were indignant. "Why this waste?" they asked. 'This perfume could have been sold at a high price and the money given to the poor.'"
* John 12:4-6 "But one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, who was later to betray him, objected, 'Why wasn't this perfume sold and the money given to the poor? It was worth a year's wages.' He did not say this because he cared about the poor but because he was a thief; as keeper of the money bag, he used to help himself to what was put into it."
* "the disciples" -John says that Judas Iscariot was the spokes person. Iscariot was used to distinguish him from the other disciples by that name. Iscariot mean sword in Greek.
* John says that Judas stole from the money bag of which he was in charge of.
* The other disciples just wanted to do good things and were offended by the strong smell, especially while they were eating.
* Every act of love for Jesus will be meet with people who complain and gossip. For example when David danced before the ark of the Lord when it was being brought into Jerusalem brought complaining from his wife.
* The disciple's words must have hurt the woman's feelings.
>In what respect do their words sound like common sense?
* From a human point of view their was no purpose for or prophet from her act.
* What the sinful nature says is good is bad, and what is bad as good.
* The world does not understand sacrifices made for Jesus. The value system of the world does not recognize service to God.
>What does this reveal about them?
* They had no spiritual eyesight into God's will and people's heart. They had not listened to Jesus' words concerning his soon to come crucifixion.
* The love of money blinded them to what God considered important. They didn't listen to his words about his death, linking this act to the will of God.
* They didn't have much respect and love for Jesus.
* Followers of Jesus must see other believer's acts in the eyes of Jesus.
>4. Why might Jesus have been embarrassed?
* Men and women in those days did not intermingle, especially if they were unmarried. Here a woman not only touch him, but was showing unrestrained affection.
* Jesus would have been dripping with perfume.
>What did he say to the complainers?
* Matthew 26:10 "Aware of this, Jesus said to them, "Why are you bothering this woman? She has done a beautiful thing to me."
* "Aware of this" -Jesus knows our heart motive. He knows what we are thinking.
* "Why are you..." -Whenever God asks a question we should examine our hearts. Why do we do what we do? Why do we think what we think? Why do we say what we say?
* "bothering this women" -Jesus saw how Judas' words affected her. He defended her.
* The disciples did not have love in their hearts, so they could not recognize love.
* Jesus' wisdom in handling this incident is displayed.
>Why did he regard the woman so highly?
* "a beautiful thing" -Other could only smell the strong sent as they ate. Jesus saw the heart.
* When a person does something out of love for him he will make the most out of it.
>Why was this act more precious at this time than helping the poor?
* Matthew 26:11-12 "The poor you will always have with you, but you will not always have me. When she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial."
* "The poor you will always have with you" -Jesus started to quote from Deuteronomy 15:11 giving Judas the chance to repent of greed. It says, "There will always be poor people in the land. Therefore I command you to be open handed toward your brothers and toward the poor and needy in your land." (Deuteronomy 15:11)
* "but you will not always have me" -We need to discern the time in the light of God's word. This act was a once in eternity act.
* "my burial" -Jewish rites and embalming at burial required the use of perfumes.
* Jesus should be in all spects of our life. He needs to be of first priority, then family, neighbor, and then self.
* The Bible does not make it clear if she knew that this was for his burial or that he would even die soon. Jesus had told the disciples, but not all the people who followed him that he was going to be crucified and buried. Though she could have heard from one of the disciples that Jesus had said he was going to be crucified. Also, this was a strange time to be anointing someone for burial; at a meal two days before death.
>How did he draw this woman into world salvation history?
* Matthew 26:13 "I tell you the truth, wherever this gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will also be told, in memory of her."
* "this gospel" -Gospel is Greek meaning good news.
* "preached throughout the world" -Jesus is telling them that the gospel would go throughout the world to all the gentile nations.
* Why will it be preached about what she had done? Because her type of love for him would advance the gospel, not so much helping the poor with financial aid. The act of love, giving all of what we value toward Jesus is what the life of faith is all about.
* If our hearts are right we will be used by God in ways that we do not know and/or even fully understand. This is shown in the lives of many in the Bible; Abraham, David, and the prophets.
>5. What did Judas do after this?
* Matthew 26:14-16 "Then one of the Twelve--the one called Judas Iscariot--went to the chief priests and asked, "What are you willing to give me if I hand him over to you?" So they counted out for him thirty silver coins. From then on Judas watched for an opportunity to hand him over."
* "one of the Twelve" -Jesus had chosen twelve from those who followed him and called them apostles. Apostles means sent.
* "went to the chief priests" -If Jesus had a betrayer, and he a leader, you can be sure that all congregations since then have had at least one Judas amongst them. Do not be surprised if there are hypocrites and evil acts in a congregation.
* "to give me" -Selfish motives.
* "thirty pieces of coins" -The price of redemption.
>Why do you think he did this? (Note the contrasts between Judas and the woman.)
* The woman:
1) gave something of value.
2) showed her love for Jesus
3) did a kind act.
1) wanted to gain something of value
2) hated Jesus' and his words to him.
3) did an unkind act.
* Judas so Jesus perform so many miracles. He was also sent on missionary journeys. Yet, in the end he did not believe. He could not accept what the Messiah really was. The Messiah he wanted did not coincide with the reality. He would even claim that he knew Jesus was an innocent and good man. Yet, this understanding was not the reality of who Jesus fully is.
II. The Lord's Supper (17-30)
>6. Why did Jesus want to celebrate the Passover with his disciples?
* "On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread" -
* "the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread" -The Jews considered the start of Passover and the start of the Feast of Unleavened bread as the same since unleavened bread is eaten at Passover.
* Jesus wanted to give something to remember his by, as well as a sign of the new covenant. Covenant is a binding contractual agreement between two parties. God made a covenant with Noah (Genesis 6:18, 9:9-17), Abraham (Genesis 15, 17), Isaac and Jacob (Exodus 2), and David (2 Samuel 23:5).
* Jesus used symbols the teach us about what he was doing.
>How did they prepare? (17-19)
* Matthew 26:17-19 "On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus and asked, 'Where do you want us to make preparations for you to eat the Passover?' He replied, 'Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, 'The Teacher says: My appointed time is near. I am going to celebrate the Passover with my disciples at your house.' So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them and prepared the Passover."
* "Where do you want" -The disciples wanted to do it Jesus' way. They asked him.
* "make preparations" -The disciples did not expect more than a traditional Passover meal. They wanted to serve him.
* "My apointed time is near" -Jesus had already made arrangements that is not recorded here. Not only that, but someone understood what Jesus meant by appoited time, and that being his last Passover meal because he would be killed.
>7. What announcement did Jesus make while they were eating?
* Matthew 26:20-21 "When evening came, Jesus was reclining at the table with the Twelve. And while they were eating, he said, 'I tell you the truth, one of you will betray me.'"
* "evening" -The Hebrew calendar considered evening (sunset) as the end of a day and the beginning of a new one.
* "with the Twelve" -No one else was there at the time. Since this was at someone house, they must have left the room, or were not there yet.
* "one of you will betray me" -Jesus had known ever since he called Judas that he was the betrayer. He is God incarnate.
* Judas' betrayal must have been hard for Jesus. 2 Corinthians 11:29, "Who is weak, and I do not feel weak? Who is led into sin, and I do not inwardly burn?"
* Jesus never cast Judas out. He always let Judas make his own decision. Throughout the ages there have been elders and pastors who didn't like someone and forced them out by treating them poorly and persecuting them.
* Jesus believed that God was working in everything, even through Judas' betrayal. Jesus was not concerned about Judas actions to him as much as to others.
>Why did he bring up such a painful subject?
* Jesus wanted the apostles to know he always knew. Jesus allowed it to happen. Jesus was in control, not Judas.
* Jesus' words would help the disciples later. Their faith in him later would not be shaken. John 13:19 records Jesus saying, "I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He."
>How did the disciples respond?
* Matthew 26:22 "They were very sad and began to say to him one after the other, 'Surely not I, Lord?'"
* One person's hate can make many sad.
* The disciples had often seen great kingdom plans with them ruling on a throne with Jesus. Now, Jesus is not only talking of his death, but saying one would betray him.
* They did not know themselves or each other even though they had spent over three years together.
* They needed to be assured.
* They wanted to act strong in front of the others.
* Judas was able to cover his evil heart and plans on the inside. He looked just as loyal as the others. We cannot always tell a person by the outside.
* Jesus did not specify at this point because he wanted each of them to search their heart so that they would learn to rely on him, especially after all ran away.
>How did Jesus try to help Judas repent?
* Matthew 26:23-24 "Jesus replied, 'The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me will betray me. The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him. But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born.'"
* Jesus is giving Judas a chance to repent and confess.
* "the one who dipped" -Jesus is being indiscreet for Judas' sake. If Jesus would have announced, they might have beat him up or killed him. This way, Judas had a chance to repent.
* "the Son of Man will go just as it is written" -Jesus is saying that he will be crucified one way or another. Judas could have repented. Psalms 41:9 states, "Even my close friend, whom I trusted, he who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me." If Judas repented right now this would still have been filled because he received the money.
* "woe to that man" -Jesus is now stepping it up. Giving fair warning.
* "it would be better" -Judas would surely think this just before he hung himself.
* dipped" -John 13:27 states, "As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him. 'What you are about to do, do quickly,' Jesus told him."
>What was Judas' free choice?
* Matthew 26:25 "Then Judas, the one who would betray him, said, 'Surely not I, Rabbi?' Jesus answered, 'Yes, it is you.'"
* Since Judas did not repent Jesus made it clear so he would have one more chance.
* Jesus revealed the consequences if Judas continued with what he had started.
* Jesus was truthful for Judas' own good.
* Judas now fully could understand the wrong he was doing.
>8.What did Jesus then do?
* Matthew 26:26 "While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 'Take and eat; this is my body.'"
* "While they were eating" -Jesus is now going to add to the Passover meal a ceremony (covenant rite) that we are to keep. Since Jesus is about the fulfill its meaning, it needs to be changed. Similarly, the Passover meal eaten in Egypt was changed once they left Egypt.
* "bread" -common in every society in the world.
>What is the meaning of his breaking the bread and giving it to them to eat? (Luke 22:19; John 6:35)
* Luke 22:19 "And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, 'This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.'"
* John 6:35 Then Jesus declared, 'I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will never go hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty.'"
* We are to receive Jesus into our heart to have eternal life. We die through him. We live through him.
* In Old Testament times, the sharing of bread and/or a meal was the sealing of a covenant.
* "this is my body" -Jesus has just said that he will not always be with them. So Jesus is not saying this literally. He is using an allegory.
>9. What did Jesus say as he offered them the cup?
* Matthew 26:27-28 "Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."
* "gave thanks" -Jesus always thanked his Father.
>What does he mean by "my blood of the covenant"? (Hebrews 9:22; John 1:29)
* Hebrews 9:22 "In fact, the law requires that nearly everything be cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness."
* John 1:29 "he next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!"
* The old covenant with Israel was confirmed with the blood of animals (Ex. 24:8) making it imperfect and temporary. The new covenant was made with his perfect blood.
>What does Jesus do for those who believe in him?
* Jesus poured out his blood and let his body be broken so that he could take the punishment for the sins that we committed. "Without the shedding of blood there is not forgiveness of sins."
>How does a covenant relationship with Jesus change our inner lives? (1 Peter 1:18-19; Hebrews 9:14)
* 1 Peter 1:18-19 "For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect."
* Hebrews 9:14 "How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!"
>10. What glorious promise did he make? (29)
* Matthew 26:29 "I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom."
* "in my Father's kingdom" -Jesus is referring to the Millennium kingdom.
>Why did they sing a hymn?
* Matthew 26:30 "When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives."
* Psalms 115-118 are customarily sung.
III. Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial (31-35)
>11. What did Jesus know about their human loyalty and its limits?
* Matthew 26:31 "Then Jesus told them, 'This very night you will all fall away on account of me, for it is written: 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.'"
* "you will all fall away" -No exceptions.
* "on account of me" -Jesus is the center of everything, even their falling away.
* Peter and the others thought that they were great, but he didn't realize who he was.
>What did he give them? (Zechariah 13:7)
* Zechariah 13:7 "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the man who is close to me!" declares the Lord Almighty. "Strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered, and I will turn my hand against the little ones."
* "shepherd" -Jesus often called himself their shepherd.
* Each of the apostles were to blame for they had been warned just as Judas had been warned.
* Jesus had to stand alone.
* Jesus telling them ahead of time would give them a chance to recognize their failure and repent. They would learn from their mistake.
>What glorious promise did he give them?
* Matthew 26:32 "But after I have risen, I will go ahead of you into Galilee."
* Jesus is again predicting his resurrection.
>12. What was the disciples' response?
* Matthew 26:33 "Peter replied, 'Even if all fall away on account of you, I never will.'"
* Peter really had a hard time thinking about what Jesus was saying. He couldn't get it out of his mind that he would betray Jesus.
>What is admirable about Peter?
* Peter loved Jesus and wanted to be loyal to him.
* Just because we want to do something, does not mean we have the will.
* Jesus would soon tell them, "The spirit is willing, but the body is weak."
* Romans 7:14-20 states, "We know that the law is spiritual; but I am not spiritual, sold as a slave to sin. I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do. And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good. As it is, it is no longer I myself who do it, but it is sin living in me. I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my sinful nature. For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. 19 For what I do is not the good I want to do; no, the evil I do not want to do--this I keep on doing. Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it."
>What would be the result of his not accepting Jesus' words?
* Peter's refusal to accept Jesus' word would lead to him denying Jesus three times.
* All must realize our limitations.
>How does Jesus make a way for Peter to come back after failure?
* Matthew 26:34-35 ""I tell you the truth," Jesus answered, "this very night, before the rooster crows, you will disown me three times." But Peter declared, "Even if I have to die with you, I will never disown you." And all the other disciples said the same."
* Jesus was as clear to Peter as he had been to Judas. The difference with the two was Peter's repentance and Judas' suicide.
* What is impossible with man is possible with God.