1 Kings 1:1-53 Comments by Stephen Ricker
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Our Lord King David Has Made Solomon King
Comments for Study 1

1 Kings 1:1-53
Memory Verse: 43

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I. Old and Well Advanced in Years (1:1-4)

>1. When David was old what problem did he have? (1)

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>Why might he have this problem? (1 Sam. 22:1, 24:3; and 2 Sam. 23:13, and 1 Chron. 11:15; Ps. 22:6)

* 1 Samuel 22:1 "David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there."

* 1 Samuel 24:3 "He came to the sheep pens along the way; a cave was there, and Saul went in to relieve himself. David and his men were far back in the cave."

* 2 Samuel 23:13 "During harvest time, three of the thirty chief men came down to David at the cave of Adullam, while a band of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim."

* 1 Chronicles 11:15 "Three of the thirty chiefs came down to David to the rock at the cave of Adullam, while a band of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim."

* Psalm 22:6 "But I am a worm and not a man, scorned by men and despised by the people."

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>How was his problem solved? (2-4)

* 1 Kings 1:2-4 "So his servants said to him, "Let us look for a young virgin to attend the king and take care of him. She can lie beside him so that our lord the king may keep warm." Then they searched throughout Israel for a beautiful girl and found Abishag, a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. The girl was very beautiful; she took care of the king and waited on him, but the king had no intimate relations with her."

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>Why might he refrain from intimate relations with her and why wasn't his many wives any help?

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II. Adonijah Follows Absalom's Example (1:5-27)

>2. Who was Adonijah? (5, 2 Sam. 3:2-5)

* 1 Kings 1:5 "Now Adonijah, whose mother was Haggith, put himself forward and said, "I will be king." So he got chariots and horses ready, with fifty men to run ahead of him."

* 2 Samuel 3:2-5 "Sons were born to David in Hebron: His firstborn was Amnon the son of Ahinoam of Jezreel; his second, Kileab the son of Abigail the widow of Nabal of Carmel; the third, Absalom the son of Maacah daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital; and the sixth, Ithream the son of David's wife Eglah. These were born to David in Hebron."

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>What does verse 6 tell us about David's role as a father and his home life?

* 1 Kings 1:6 "(His father had never interfered with him by asking, "Why do you behave as you do?" He was also very handsome and was born next after Absalom.)"

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>What does the Bible teach about fatherhood? (Eph. 6:4; and 1 Thes. 2:11-12; Heb. 12:7-11; 2 John 2:4)

* Ephesians 6:4 "Fathers, do not exasperate your children; instead, bring them up in the training and instruction of the Lord."

* 1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 "For you know that we dealt with each of you as a father deals with his own children, encouraging, comforting and urging you to live lives worthy of God, who calls you into his kingdom and glory."

* Hebrews 12:7-11 "Endure hardship as discipline; God is treating you as sons. For what son is not disciplined by his father? If you are not disciplined (and everyone undergoes discipline), then you are illegitimate children and not true sons. Our fathers disciplined us for a little while as they thought best; but God disciplines us for our good, that we may share in his holiness. No discipline seems pleasant at the time, but painful. Later on, however, it produces a harvest of righteousness and peace for those who have been trained by it."

* 2 John 1:4 "It has given me great joy to find some of your children walking in the truth, just as the Father commanded us."

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>3. Who were and were not involved and what does this tell us? (7-8, 10; and 2 Sam. 12:24-25)

* 1 Kings 1:7-8 "Adonijah conferred with Joab son of Zeruiah and with Abiathar the priest, and they gave him their support. But Zadok the priest, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, Nathan the prophet, Shimei and Rei and David's special guard did not join Adonijah."

* 1 Kings 1:10 "but he did not invite Nathan the prophet or Benaiah or the special guard or his brother Solomon."

* 2 Samuel 12:24-25 "Then David comforted his wife Bathsheba, and he went to her and lay with her. She gave birth to a son, and they named him Solomon. The LORD loved him; and because the LORD loved him, he sent word through Nathan the prophet to name him Jedidiah."

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>Why offer sacrifices? (9)

* 1 Kings 1:9 "Adonijah then sacrificed sheep, cattle and fattened calves at the Stone of Zoheleth near En Rogel. He invited all his brothers, the king's sons, and all the men of Judah who were royal officials,"

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>4. Who was Nathan? (2 Sam. 7:2, 4-6, 12:1)

* 2 Samuel 7:2 "he said to Nathan the prophet, "Here I am, living in a palace of cedar, while the ark of God remains in a tent."

* 2 Samuel 7:4-6 "That night the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying: 'Go and tell my servant David, 'This is what the Lord says: Are you the one to build me a house to dwell in? I have not dwelt in a house from the day I brought the Israelites up out of Egypt to this day. I have been moving from place to place with a tent as my dwelling."

* 2 Samuel 12:1 "The LORD sent Nathan to David. When he came to him, he said, 'There were two men in a certain town, one rich and the other poor...'"

* "Nathan the prophet" -Nathan was a prophet of the Lord and David's personal prophet. "Nathan repeated to David all the words of the entire revelation." (17) Nathan later would rebuked David for his sin. (2 Sa. 12:1-23) The prophets communicated with God directly, giving the king and God's people messages from the Lord. Nathan acted as David's spiritual mentor, friend, shepherd, Bible teacher, advisor, and counselor.

* Leaders should be accountable to someone like David was to Nathan; though in reality David was accountable to God.

* David's humility in talking to Nathan about his plans counters Saul's leadership style.

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>Why would he need to act quickly? (11-14; 20-21)

* 1 Kings 1:11-14 "Then Nathan asked Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, "Have you not heard that Adonijah, the son of Haggith, has become king without our lord David's knowing it? Now then, let me advise you how you can save your own life and the life of your son Solomon. Go in to King David and say to him, 'My lord the king, did you not swear to me your servant: "Surely Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he will sit on my throne"? Why then has Adonijah become king?' While you are still there talking to the king, I will come in and confirm what you have said."

* 1 Kings 1:20-21 "My lord the king, the eyes of all Israel are on you, to learn from you who will sit on the throne of my lord the king after him. Otherwise, as soon as my lord the king is laid to rest with his fathers, I and my son Solomon will be treated as criminals."

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>5. How did Bathsheba respond to the prophets instructions? (15, 17-19)

* 1 Kings 1:15 "So Bathsheba went to see the aged king in his room, where Abishag the Shunammite was attending him."

* 1 Kings 1:17-19 "She said to him, "My lord, you yourself swore to me your servant by the LORD your God: 'Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he will sit on my throne.' But now Adonijah has become king, and you, my lord the king, do not know about it. He has sacrificed great numbers of cattle, fattened calves, and sheep, and has invited all the king's sons, Abiathar the priest and Joab the commander of the army, but he has not invited Solomon your servant."

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>What was her attitude before her husband? (16-17a)

* 1 Kings 1:16-17a "Bathsheba bowed low and knelt before the king. "What is it you want?" the king asked." She said to him, "My lord, you yourself swore to me your servant by the LORD your God."

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>How had she changed her ways? (2 Sam. 11:2-4)

* 2 Samuel 11:2-4 "One evening David got up from his bed and walked around on the roof of the palace. From the roof he saw a woman bathing. The woman was very beautiful, and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said, "Isn't this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite?" Then David sent messengers to get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (She had purified herself from her uncleanness.) Then she went back home."

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>What does the Bible say about wives? (Eph. 5:22-24; Col. 3:18; and 1 Tim. 3:11; and 1 Peter 3:1-6)

* 1 Peter 3:1-6 "Wives, in the same way be submissive to your husbands so that, if any of them do not believe the word, they may be won over without words by the behavior of their wives, when they see the purity and reverence of your lives. Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, such as braided hair and the wearing of gold jewelry and fine clothes. Instead, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God's sight. For this is the way the holy women of the past who put their hope in God used to make themselves beautiful. They were submissive to their own husbands, like Sarah, who obeyed Abraham and called him her master. You are her daughters if you do what is right and do not give way to fear."

* 1 Timothy 3:11 "In the same way, their wives are to be women worthy of respect, not malicious talkers but temperate and trustworthy in everything."

* Colossians 3:18 "Wives, submit to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord."

* Ephesians 5:22-24 "Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything."

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>6. Who entered while Bathsheba was still speaking? (22-23)

* 1 Kings 1:22-23 "While she was still speaking with the king, Nathan the prophet arrived. And they told the king, "Nathan the prophet is here." So he went before the king and bowed with his face to the ground."

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>What did he say?

* 1 Kings 1:24-27 "Nathan said, "Have you, my lord the king, declared that Adonijah shall be king after you, and that he will sit on your throne? Today he has gone down and sacrificed great numbers of cattle, fattened calves, and sheep. He has invited all the king's sons, the commanders of the army and Abiathar the priest. Right now they are eating and drinking with him and saying, 'Long live King Adonijah!' But me your servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah son of Jehoiada, and your servant Solomon he did not invite. Is this something my lord the king has done without letting his servants know who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after him?""

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>Why would Nathan need to handle such an important issue this way?

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>How can this be applied to our time? (Mark 12:17; and 1 Peter 2:13-17; Jude 1:8-10)

* Mark 12:17 "Then Jesus said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's and to God what is God's." And they were amazed at him."

* 1 Peter 2:13-17 "Submit yourselves for the Lord's sake to every authority instituted among men: whether to the king, as the supreme authority, or to governors, who are sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right. For it is God's will that by doing good you should silence the ignorant talk of foolish men. Live as free men, but do not use your freedom as a cover-up for evil; live as servants of God. Show proper respect to everyone: Love the brotherhood of believers, fear God, honor the king."

* Jude 1:8-10 "In the very same way, these dreamers pollute their own bodies, reject authority and slander celestial beings. But even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not dare to bring a slanderous accusation against him, but said, "The Lord rebuke you!" Yet these men speak abusively against whatever they do not understand; and what things they do understand by instinct, like unreasoning animals--these are the very things that destroy them."

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III. David Makes Solomon King (1:28-53)

>7. How did David receive the words of his wife and the prophet? (28-31)

* 1 Kings 1:28-31 "Then King David said, "Call in Bathsheba." So she came into the king's presence and stood before him. The king then took an oath: "As surely as the LORD lives, who has delivered me out of every trouble, I will surely carry out today what I swore to you by the LORD, the God of Israel: Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he will sit on my throne in my place." Then Bathsheba bowed low with her face to the ground and, kneeling before the king, said, "May my lord King David live forever!"

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>What can husbands learn? (1 Cor. 7:32-35; Eph. 5:25-30; Col. 3:19; and 1 Peter 3:7)

* 1 Corinthians 7:32-35 "I would like you to be free from concern. An unmarried man is concerned about the Lord's affairs--how he can please the Lord. But a married man is concerned about the affairs of this world--how he can please his wife-- and his interests are divided. An unmarried woman or virgin is concerned about the Lord's affairs: Her aim is to be devoted to the Lord in both body and spirit. But a married woman is concerned about the affairs of this world--how she can please her husband. I am saying this for your own good, not to restrict you, but that you may live in a right way in undivided devotion to the Lord."

* Ephesians 5:25-30 "Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless. In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. After all, no one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church-- for we are members of his body."

* Colossians 3:19 "Husbands, love your wives and do not be harsh with them."

* 1 Peter 3:7 "Husbands, in the same way be considerate as you live with your wives, and treat them with respect as the weaker partner and as heirs with you of the gracious gift of life, so that nothing will hinder your prayers."

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>8. Describe Solomon's coronation. (32-35)

* 1 Kings 1:32-35 "King David said, "Call in Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet and Benaiah son of Jehoiada." When they came before the king, he said to them: "Take your lord's servants with you and set Solomon my son on my own mule and take him down to Gihon. There have Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel. Blow the trumpet and shout, 'Long live King Solomon!' Then you are to go up with him, and he is to come and sit on my throne and reign in my place. I have appointed him ruler over Israel and Judah."

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>How did Benaiah, Zadok, Nathan, and all the people respond? (36-40)

* 1 Kings 1:36-40 "Benaiah son of Jehoiada answered the king, "Amen! May the LORD, the God of my lord the king, so declare it. As the LORD was with my lord the king, so may he be with Solomon to make his throne even greater than the throne of my lord King David!" So Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, the Kerethites and the Pelethites went down and put Solomon on King David's mule and escorted him to Gihon. Zadok the priest took the horn of oil from the sacred tent and anointed Solomon. Then they sounded the trumpet and all the people shouted, "Long live King Solomon!" And all the people went up after him, playing flutes and rejoicing greatly, so that the ground shook with the sound."

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>How did this foreshadow Jesus, the Anointed One (Messiah)? (Matt. 21:4-9; John 18:36, 19:13-15, 19-22; Acts 4:25-27; Rev. 11:15, 19:11-16)

* Matthew 21:4-9 "This took place to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet: "Say to the Daughter of Zion, 'See, your king comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.'" The disciples went and did as Jesus had instructed them. They brought the donkey and the colt, placed their cloaks on them, and Jesus sat on them. A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds that went ahead of him and those that followed shouted, "Hosanna to the Son of David!" "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!" "Hosanna in the highest!"

* John 18:36 "Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place."

* John 19:13-15 "When Pilate heard this, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judge's seat at a place known as the Stone Pavement (which in Aramaic is Gabbatha). It was the day of Preparation of Passover Week, about the sixth hour. "Here is your king," Pilate said to the Jews. But they shouted, "Take him away! Take him away! Crucify him!" "Shall I crucify your king?" Pilate asked. "We have no king but Caesar," the chief priests answered.

* John 19:19-22 "Pilate had a notice prepared and fastened to the cross. It read: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. Many of the Jews read this sign, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek. The chief priests of the Jews protested to Pilate, "Do not write 'The King of the Jews,' but that this man claimed to be king of the Jews." Pilate answered, "What I have written, I have written."

* Acts 4:25-27 "You spoke by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of your servant, our father David: "'Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against the Lord and against his Anointed One. Indeed Herod and Pontius Pilate met together with the Gentiles and the people of Israel in this city to conspire against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed."

* Revelation 11:15 "The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said: "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever."

* Revelation 19:11-16 "I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war. His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has a name written on him that no one knows but he himself. He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God. The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. "He will rule them with an iron scepter." He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS."

>9. What surprised the feasting Adonijah and Joab? (41-42)

* 1 Kings 1:41-42 "Adonijah and all the guests who were with him heard it as they were finishing their feast. On hearing the sound of the trumpet, Joab asked, "What's the meaning of all the noise in the city?" Even as he was speaking, Jonathan son of Abiathar the priest arrived. Adonijah said, "Come in. A worthy man like you must be bringing good news."

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>What news did Jonathan tell them? (43-48)

* 1 Kings 1:43-48 "Not at all!" Jonathan answered. "Our lord King David has made Solomon king. The king has sent with him Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, the Kerethites and the Pelethites, and they have put him on the king's mule, and Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king at Gihon. From there they have gone up cheering, and the city resounds with it. That's the noise you hear. Moreover, Solomon has taken his seat on the royal throne. Also, the royal officials have come to congratulate our lord King David, saying, 'May your God make Solomon's name more famous than yours and his throne greater than yours!' And the king bowed in worship on his bed and said, 'Praise be to the LORD, the God of Israel, who has allowed my eyes to see a successor on my throne today.'"

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>Who were the Kerethites and the Pelethites? (1 Sam. 22:1-2, 23:13; 2 Sam. 8:15-18, 15:18-19, 20:7, 23-26)

* 1 Samuel 22:1-2 "David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there. All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their leader. About four hundred men were with him."

* 1 Samuel 23:13 "So David and his men, about six hundred in number, left Keilah and kept moving from place to place. When Saul was told that David had escaped from Keilah, he did not go there."

* 2 Samuel 8:15-18 "David reigned over all Israel, doing what was just and right for all his people. Joab son of Zeruiah was over the army; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was recorder; Zadok son of Ahitub and Ahimelech son of Abiathar were priests; Seraiah was secretary; Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Kerethites and Pelethites; and David's sons were royal advisers."

* 2 Samuel 15:18-19 "All his men marched past him, along with all the Kerethites and Pelethites; and all the six hundred Gittites who had accompanied him from Gath marched before the king. The king said to Ittai the Gittite, "Why should you come along with us? Go back and stay with King Absalom. You are a foreigner, an exile from your homeland."

* 2 Samuel 20:7 "So Joab's men and the Kerethites and Pelethites and all the mighty warriors went out under the command of Abishai. They marched out from Jerusalem to pursue Sheba son of Bicri."

* 2 Samuel 20:23-26 "Joab was over Israel's entire army; Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Kerethites and Pelethites; Adoniram was in charge of forced labor; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was recorder; Sheva was secretary; Zadok and Abiathar were priests; and Ira the Jairite was David's priest."

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>When Adonijah and Joab heard that they had sided with Solomon how did they respond? (49)

* 1 Kings 1:49 "At this, all Adonijah's guests rose in alarm and dispersed."

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>10. How did Adonijah try to save himself? (50-51)

* 1 Kings 1:50-51 "But Adonijah, in fear of Solomon, went and took hold of the horns of the altar. Then Solomon was told, "Adonijah is afraid of King Solomon and is clinging to the horns of the altar. He says, 'Let King Solomon swear to me today that he will not put his servant to death with the sword.'"

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>How did Solomon respond? (52-53)

* 1 Kings 1:52-53 "Solomon replied, "If he shows himself to be a worthy man, not a hair of his head will fall to the ground; but if evil is found in him, he will die." Then King Solomon sent men, and they brought him down from the altar. And Adonijah came and bowed down to King Solomon, and Solomon said, "Go to your home."

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>What righteous principle did Solomon display? (Matt. 5:38-39, 5:43-48)

* Matthew 5:38-39 "You have heard that it was said, 'Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.' But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also."

* Matthew 5:43-48 ""You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Are not even the tax collectors doing that? And if you greet only your brothers, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that? Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect."

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