1 Samuel 17:1-58 Comments by Stephen Ricker
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David and Goliath
Comments for Study 8

1 Samuel 17:1-58
Memory Verse: 45


I. Goliath's Challenge (1-11)

>1. How were the armies arranged? (1-3)

* 1 Samuel 17:1-3 "Now the Philistines gathered their forces for war and assembled at Socoh in Judah. They pitched camp at Ephes Dammim, between Socoh and Azekah. Saul and the Israelites assembled and camped in the Valley of Elah and drew up their battle line to meet the Philistines. The Philistines occupied one hill and the Israelites another, with the valley between them."

* "the Philistines" -See study two for a definition of their origins.

* "the Philistines gathered their forces" -The text does not say why the Philistines gathered their forces. However, it would be reasonable to assume that they wanted to reverse the recent defeats they had suffered at the hands of the Israelites. They wanted new plunder.

* "Socoh in Judah" -Socoh is fifteen miles (24km) west of Bethlehem. (2 Chron. 28:18) near the Philistine boarder of the day.

* "Ephes Dammim" -Ephes Dammim is Pas Dammim in 1 Chron. 11:13.

* "Azekah" -Azekah is a little over a mile (1.6km) north-west of Socoh.

* "Elah" -Elah is in-between Azekah and Socoh along the Wadi es-Sant.

* "hill" -Having the higher elevation was always to an advantage. It takes extra energy and time to run up a hill.

>Who came out of the Philistines camp? (4a)

* 1 Samuel 17:4a "A champion named Goliath, who was from Gath, came out of the Philistine camp."

* "champion" -The ancient Greeks, who the Philistines were related (see earlier study) often decided wars by choosing champions who would fight. The winner would decide the outcome of the battle. Through this economy of warriors the judgment of the gods on the matter at stake was determined. Israel must have known of this practice.

* "Gath" -Gath is one of the five principle cities of the Philistines. (Josh. 13:3) Goliath was from Gath (17:4) who was probably one of the Anakites survivors (Josh. 11:22). The Anakites were tall and strong people (Deut. 1:28, 2:10-11, 9:2) descendants of Anak (Josh. 15:14) who were from Nephilim (Num. 13:33). Genesis 6:4 states, "The Nephilim were on the earth in those days--and also afterward--when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown."

>Describe his size and armor. (4b-7)

* 1 Samuel 17:4b-5 "He was over nine feet tall. He had a bronze helmet on his head and wore a coat of scale armor of bronze weighing five thousand shekels; on his legs he wore bronze greaves, and a bronze javelin was slung on his back. His spear shaft was like a weaver's rod, and its iron point weighed six hundred shekels. His shield bearer went ahead of him."

* "over nine feet tall" -Nine feet is about three meters. Saul being a head taller than the rest of the Israelites would have been the obvious man to face the very tall Goliath.

* "bronze helmet" -To protect against arrows and sword glances. Bronze was lighter and easier to manufacture into a helmet than iron. Iron was the choice for swords and spear tips. The helmet was very expensive.

* "scale armor of bronze" -Sheets of metal were sown together and to cloth or leather making it flexible and kept it as light as possible while still effective down to the knees. It was very expensive.

* "five thousand shekels" -Five thousand shekels is one hundred twenty-five pounds (57 kilograms). Very expensive.

* "bronze greaves" -Greaves was a piece of plate armor for the leg between the knee and the ankle, usually composed of front and back pieces.

* "javelin" -Back then the javelin was more like a curved sickle with the sharp edge on the outside instead of the inside.

* "weaver's rod" -This would make it equipped for use with a sling.

* "six hundred shekels" -Fifteen pounds (7 kilograms).

* "shield" -the shield was almost as long as the body and weighed a lot. The bearer was completely protected. The warrior behind the bearer was almost completely protected.

* Goliath was equipped with the most expensive armor and weapons of the day. Almost every part of his body was covered with armor. only his face and hands were exposed.

* Since the belief was that the gods would determine the outcome, the fact that Goliath was so well equipped shows the nature of the world's idea of God and religion. Similarly today many who claim to believe in God rely on elaborate ritual, spirits that they may call angels, habitual prayers, music and drama, and/or traditions. These make them feel spiritual and good about themselves. Do they know the Holy Spirit as the apostles did, live by faith as Abraham did, and walk with God as Enoch did?

>2. What was Goliath's challenge Israel? (8-10)

* 1 Samuel 17:8-10 "Goliath stood and shouted to the ranks of Israel, "Why do you come out and line up for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not the servants of Saul? Choose a man and have him come down to me. If he is able to fight and kill me, we will become your subjects; but if I overcome him and kill him, you will become our subjects and serve us." Then the Philistine said, "This day I defy the ranks of Israel! Give me a man and let us fight each other."

* "servants of Saul" -Saul's reputation as the king of Israel, fighting their battles was well known by this time. His anointing was over twenty years before this.

* "we will become your subjects" -Being a subject would men they would pay tribute in grain, goods, and metals. The offer was genuine, though not later kept. How it was meant to be enforced is not clear. Sooner or later the loser would want a new confrontation, which could go on endlessly.

* "This day I defy the ranks of Israel" -Goliath was mocking not only the Israelites, but their faith in their God. He was saying, "You have no way of defeating me. You are cowards."

* Goliath's tactic, like Satan's is one of intimidation and fear. Goliath generated the terms of the battle, one that was never truly kept for very long. His terms was part of his strategy.

>How long did he continue to do this? (16)

* 1 Samuel 17:16 "For forty days the Philistine came forward every morning and evening and took his stand."

* The Israelite confidence and faith was at an all time low. They ask for a king to fight for them, now the king did nothing. They rejected the Lord as their king and now it appears he is doing nothing for them. They showed no faith in the Lord's covenant promises. The Lord had told Abraham, "I am your shield, your very great reward." (Gen. 15:1) They did not take this as their own. More on these covenants below.

* "forty days" -As the days went on, each camp would look down the step cliffs into the valley and the giant Goliath. He showed no fear. He trusted in his height, strength and armor. Each day the Israelites were humiliated. Yet, they did nothing. Saul, most of all looked like a worthy king. His pride had to led him to be a man who should be approached in fear.

>How did his challenge affect the Israelites? (11; Mark 4:40)

* 1 Samuel 17:11 "On hearing the Philistine's words, Saul and all the Israelites were dismayed and terrified."

* Mark 4:40 "He said to his disciples, "Why are you so afraid? Do you still have no faith?"

* The Lord promised the Israelites many times of his protection and help. Below is a short list.

* Genesis 12:2-3 "I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you."

* Genesis 13:14-17 "The Lord said to Abram after Lot had parted from him, "Lift up your eyes from where you are and look north and south, east and west. All the land that you see I will give to you and your offspring forever. I will make your offspring like the dust of the earth, so that if anyone could count the dust, then your offspring could be counted. Go, walk through the length and breadth of the land, for I am giving it to you."

* Genesis 15:18-21 "On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram and said, "To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates-- the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites and Jebusites."

* Exodus 6:6-8 "Therefore, say to the Israelites: 'I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians. I will free you from being slaves to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. I will take you as my own people, and I will be your God. Then you will know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians. And I will bring you to the land I swore with uplifted hand to give to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob. I will give it to you as a possession. I am the Lord.'"

* Leviticus 26:3-13 "'If you follow my decrees and are careful to obey my commands, I will send you rain in its season, and the ground will yield its crops and the trees of the field their fruit. Your threshing will continue until grape harvest and the grape harvest will continue until planting, and you will eat all the food you want and live in safety in your land. I will grant peace in the land, and you will lie down and no one will make you afraid. I will remove savage beasts from the land, and the sword will not pass through your country. You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall by the sword before you. Five of you will chase a hundred, and a hundred of you will chase ten thousand, and your enemies will fall by the sword before you. I will look on you with favor and make you fruitful and increase your numbers, and I will keep my covenant with you. You will still be eating last year's harvest when you will have to move it out to make room for the new. I will put my dwelling place among you, and I will not abhor you. I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be my people. I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt so that you would no longer be slaves to the Egyptians; I broke the bars of your yoke and enabled you to walk with heads held high."

* The Israelites listened to Goliath and accepted his words over the words of their God. They fell right into Goliath's trap.

* One side question, where was Jonathan, the man who said the Lord gives the victory? 18:1 shows that Saul was keeping Jonathan near him in his tent. I suspect he didn't want Jonathan to go out and fight this man because it would show him up and he feared losing his son.

>What are some "Goliath" we encounter?

* So many times in our lives obstacles and challenges come along that defy us and our faith. Are "Goliath" could be people; family, friends, enemies, neighbors, co-workers, fellow students, and strangers. They could be financial; to much or to little. (Prov. 30:8-9) They could be health; disease, sickness, injury, mental, pain, and a handicap. More importantly it could be something that hinders or threatens your service for the Lord and his church. Is there a Goliath that keeps you from obeying Jesus and living by faith?

* John 14:15-21 "If you love me, you will obey what I command. And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever-- the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you. I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you. Before long, the world will not see me anymore, but you will see me. Because I live, you also will live. On that day you will realize that I am in my Father, and you are in me, and I am in you. Whoever has my commands and obeys them, he is the one who loves me. He who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I too will love him and show myself to him."

* Matthew 28:18-20 "Then Jesus came to them and said, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age."

* 2 Chronicles 16:9a "For the eyes of the Lord range throughout the earth to strengthen those whose hearts are fully committed to him."

II. David Challenges Goliath (12-40)

>3. Who was David and what two jobs did he have? (12-15)

* 1 Samuel 17:12-15 "Now David was the son of an Ephrathite named Jesse, who was from Bethlehem in Judah. Jesse had eight sons, and in Saul's time he was old and well advanced in years. Jesse's three oldest sons had followed Saul to the war: The firstborn was Eliab; the second, Abinadab; and the third, Shammah. David was the youngest. The three oldest followed Saul, but David went back and forth from Saul to tend his father's sheep at Bethlehem."

* At this point in the books of Samuel David becomes the main figure. Samuel is old and we only hear about him a few more times. Saul has been rejected by the Lord and will slowly decline in the next fifteen years until his death at the end of 1 Samuel. The only time we hear of Saul is in relation to David. As is common with the Bible, each new section gets its own beginning, even though it may be in the middle of the book. (i.e. In Genesis new sections start with the Hebrew word that is translated "this is the account of".)

* David was not perfect, but his relationship with God was perfected in the grace of the Lord. He sought God, contrary to most of those around him.

* "Ephrathite" -An Ephrathite is a citizen or clan member of Ephratah, the son of Hur, the son of Judah. (Ruth 1:2) "These were the descendants of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah and father of Bethlehem." (1 Chronicles 4:4b)

* "The three oldest followed Saul" -The oldest looked like soldiers. Samuel was impressed by them, but God was not.

* "David went back and forth from Saul" -During the forty days, and perhaps more David had not been needed by Saul. David's service within Saul's household was only occasion, whenever an evil spirit came to torment Saul. Now, during the battle, David would not be needed. He'd be at his father's house tending the sheep.

* David was anointed king of Israel. Yet he filled the role of a servant; serving his father and Saul. Jesus is also anointed king. Yet he said, "For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." (Mark 10:45)

>How was it that David came to the battle lines? (17-22)

* 1 Samuel 17:17-22 "Now Jesse said to his son David, "Take this ephah of roasted grain and these ten loaves of bread for your brothers and hurry to their camp. Take along these ten cheeses to the commander of their unit. See how your brothers are and bring back some assurance from them. They are with Saul and all the men of Israel in the Valley of Elah, fighting against the Philistines." Early in the morning David left the flock with a shepherd, loaded up and set out, as Jesse had directed. He reached the camp as the army was going out to its battle positions, shouting the war cry. Israel and the Philistines were drawing up their lines facing each other. David left his things with the keeper of supplies, ran to the battle lines and greeted his brothers."

* "ephah of roasted grain" -Picking grain just as they become rip and roasting them is common practice in the Middle East to this very day.

* "Take along these ten cheeses to the commander of their unit" -A gift to all the troops.

* "bring back some assurance from them" -David was require to prove to his father that he made it to the front lines were his brothers were. Perhaps Jesse believed his teenage son would loose courage and return home without making to his brothers.

* "they are" -Jesse needed to tell David what was happening probably because he was out in the open country tending the sheep with no news of what was happening.

* "loaded up and set out" -Similarly Jesus was sent by his father to the embattled humanity to bring gifts for the fight and see how his people were conducting the spiritual battle. When Jesus arrived two thousand hears ago humanity was just as afraid of Satan's claims as Saul and his men were.

* "shouting the war cry" -Yelling to intimidate the enemy was common in those days. Often, right up to the late 1,800 A.D. armies were at a spear throw or gun shot distances apart.

* "ran to the battle lines and greeted his brothers" -David was not afraid to join his brothers on the line facing the Philistines.

>Contrast David's response and the Israelites when they heard Goliath's challenge. (23-27)

* 1 Samuel 17:23-27 "As he was talking with them, Goliath, the Philistine champion from Gath, stepped out from his lines and shouted his usual defiance, and David heard it. When the Israelites saw the man, they all ran from him in great fear. Now the Israelites had been saying, "Do you see how this man keeps coming out? He comes out to defy Israel. The king will give great wealth to the man who kills him. He will also give him his daughter in marriage and will exempt his father's family from taxes in Israel." David asked the men standing near him, "What will be done for the man who kills this Philistine and removes this disgrace from Israel? Who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?" They repeated to him what they had been saying and told him, "This is what will be done for the man who kills him."

* "they all ran from him in great fear" -No one from Israel wanted to be falsely accepted as the champion to go after Goliath. They saw a big man, not their even bigger God.

* "this man keeps coming out" -Each man was looking to his neighbor to fight him. No one would take on the obstacle by faith. No one accepted the battle. Sin and death had been plaguing man since Adam and Eve's sin. No one could take them out. All ran from them. Then came Jesus, our hero.

* "the king will give" -Saul would not go out and fight the man, but would reward the person who would. Because Jesus came and conquered sin and death, the tools of fear used by Satan, he his heir of he world, and he will be given his bride, the church at the end of this age.

* "David asked the men standing near him" -David had set his heart on killing David from the moment he heard him defile the Lord.

* "uncircumcised Philistine" -A term of contempt for unbelievers outside of the covenants given of the Lord.

>4. What do you think made David view the situation differently and gave him courage? Think about David's concern for the honor of God and his anger against Goliath who had defied God's people.

* "that he should defy the armies of the living God" -David's faith in the Lord was clear. David's outlook is is stark contrast of Israel. He was not afraid. The Spirit of the living God came on David when he was anointed, not the Spirit was speaking through him.

* Jesus as sent us the Holy Spirit when we first believed. If we chose to live by the Spirit, we will be given strength to stand up for the truth even when a giant causes others fear, just like the apostles and Stephen did.

* David saw Goliath from God's perspective, outside of God's covenant. He didn't show contempt for other Israelites. He even called them "armies of the Living God." He just wanted to see Goliath put in his place.

>5. Why do you think Eliab, David's brother, was upset? (28-30)

* 1 Samuel 17:28 "When Eliab, David's oldest brother, heard him speaking with the men, he burned with anger at him and asked, "Why have you come down here? And with whom did you leave those few sheep in the desert? I know how conceited you are and how wicked your heart is; you came down only to watch the battle."

* "Eliab, David's oldest brother" -Normally the oldest was the one who not only became the head of the household when his father was old and/or died, but was also expected to be the bravest and protector of the family.

* "he burned with anger" -Eliab resented David to the point of hate. Not only did David's lack of fear and words shame him (hurt his pride), but he had been anointed king even though he was the youngest. I've seen some men burn with anger and hate like this. They try to manufacture smiles to fool people, but the anger is there never the less. At times that anger bursts out and their true attitude is seen.

* "I know how conceited you are and how wicked your heart is" -We often project our own thoughts and actions onto others, especially if we hate them.

* When Jesus came the religious leaders said similar things to Jesus. When the world hates us and calls us names we can take heart that we are in good company. We should not be surprised.

* Eliab could not recognize David's indomitable spirit. (16:13)

* Joseph was also hated by his brothers. (Gen. 37)

>Did Eliab's unkind words discourage him?

* 1 Samuel 17:29-30 "Now what have I done?" said David. "Can't I even speak?" He then turned away to someone else and brought up the same matter, and the men answered him as before."

* "Now what have I done?" -David was use to being pick on and humiliated by his oldest brother. When God shows favor to people others become cruel to that person. They talk ill behind their back and in front of them. They humiliate them, persecute them, and even do physical harm to them. Sadly, if they only see that God's love is not just for one person, but can be theirs too if they only love him too.

* "Can't I even speak?" -David dealt with him in wisdom. If only I could be wise when people turn against me.

* "He turned to someone else" -David didn't let someone distract him from God's honor and mission.

>How was David brought to Saul? (31)

* 1 Samuel 17:31 "What David said was overheard and reported to Saul, and Saul sent for him.'

* Saul had been looking for someone to take his place for forty days, now he hears of one who wanted to fight Goliath.

* "brought to Saul" -It appears that Saul is not on the front lines, but back near his tent.

* Forty days was the same time that Israel wondered in the desert because they did not have faith. The were tested and taught and entered the promised land victors of the Lord. Jesus spend forty days in the desert where he was tested and defeated Satan's attack.

>What did he say to Saul? (32)

* 1 Samuel 17:32 "David said to Saul, "Let no one lose heart on account of this Philistine; your servant will go and fight him."

* "Do not lose heart" -David gives encouraging words to the king who should have been given encouraging the troupes under him.

* "your servant" -David's words weren't mere courtesy words. David was part time Saul's servant.

* Our faith in the Living God should be displayed in our actions and our words.

>6. Why did Saul object to David's offer? (33)

* 1 Samuel 17:33 "Saul replied, "You are not able to go out against this Philistine and fight him; you are only a boy, and he has been a fighting man from his youth."

* "You are not able" -Saul did not take into account the power of God. He determined that since God wasn't working through him, then God wasn't working through anyone.

* Are we Saul or David on our outlook for the spiritual battle? Am I looking at the battle lines and the size of the enemy or the Living God on my side?

>In order to convince Saul, what did David tell Saul? (34-35)

* 1 Samuel 17:34-35 "But David said to Saul, "Your servant has been keeping his father's sheep. When a lion or a bear came and carried off a sheep from the flock, I went after it, struck it and rescued the sheep from its mouth. When it turned on me, I seized it by its hair, struck it and killed it."

* David had practically learn to trust in God. David knew that God had killed the bear and lion. He said, "How else could I have killed a lion and a bear if God didn't help me."

* If the spiritual battle we cannot ignore the little victories of faith.

* We should not let others convince us of what cannot be done, but we should convince others of what God can do. We can do this by revealing them how God has worked in our lives in the past.

>What faith in God did David have that Saul nor anyone else in Israel had? (36-37)

* 1 Samuel 17:36-37 "Your servant has killed both the lion and the bear; this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, because he has defied the armies of the living God. The Lord who delivered me from the paw of the lion and the paw of the bear will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine." Saul said to David, "Go, and the Lord be with you."

* "Your servant has killed" -If we don't remember how God worked in our past, how can we share with others his greatness and kindness. Keep a diary of God's victories in your life. Write year end summaries saying all that he had done for us.

* "he has defied the armies of the living God" -God would not let his honor go unchecked.

* "the Lord who delivered me" -David trusted the Lord who had been with him all along. The Lord had been training him through attacks by lion and bears. At the time the lion and bear attacked David probably just saw it as his job to protect the sheep. Now, he sees that the Lord had been preparing him all along. We often don't see till later how the Lord was working in our lives.

* "Go and the Lord be with you" -You would think that David's speech would insight faith in Saul. Saul should have remembered how the Lord helped Israel in his own life. You would think that the king of Israel would not allow a boy to stand before a giant, that he would offer himself to fight Goliath. Saul was not that type of man anymore.

>7. Why did David not wear Saul's armor? (38-39)

* 1 Samuel 17:38-39 "Then Saul dressed David in his own tunic. He put a coat of armor on him and a bronze helmet on his head. David fastened on his sword over the tunic and tried walking around, because he was not used to them. "I cannot go in these," he said to Saul, "because I am not used to them." So he took them off."

* Why is it that the unfaithful expect us to be like them, when how they are is not good enough even for them? We should not be what other people expect of us, but what God wants of us.

>What did he take instead? (40)

* 1 Samuel 17:40 "Then he took his staff in his hand, chose five smooth stones from the stream, put them in the pouch of his shepherd's bag and, with his sling in his hand, approached the Philistine."

* David brought what he knew and learned from experience. Sometimes those who are experts and degreed try to give advice that we are not familiar with or is opposite of what he had experienced with God.

* God does not require men suited in armor of metal, but armor of faith, hope, and love. The greatest of these is love.

* Ephesians 6:13-18 "Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the saints."

* "chose five smooth stones from the stream" -The stones used in slings were a little larger than baseballs, three inches (75mm) in diameter. River beds are a good place to find smooth stones, worn by constant tumbling and water flow.

* "sling" -Slings have been and still are the favorite defensive weapon of shepherds in Palestine. They are light and easy to carry. An experienced boy can repel a stone 100 miles/hour (160 k/h). (Judges 20:16)

>Why would Saul want David to be like him and why could David not? How can this be applied to your life of faith? (1 Cor. 12:18-20)

* 1 Corinthians 12:18-20 "But in fact God has arranged the parts in the body, every one of them, just as he wanted them to be. If they were all one part, where would the body be? As it is, there are many parts, but one body."

* We should seek God's will for our life through prayer and Bible study. Know what it is that God wants of his, for his kingdom. Once we have been given a mission we need to stay with it, keep fighting the good fight of faith. Paul states in his letters the mission God gave him, an apostle to the Gentiles. At the end of our life we need to be like him and say, "I have completed the work the Lord gave me to do."

III. David's Victory (41-58)

>8. Why did Goliath despise David? (41-44)

* 1 Samuel 17:41-44 "Meanwhile, the Philistine, with his shield bearer in front of him, kept coming closer to David. He looked David over and saw that he was only a boy, ruddy and handsome, and he despised him. He said to David, "Am I a dog, that you come at me with sticks?" And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. "Come here," he said, "and I'll give your flesh to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field!"

* "Am I a dog, that you come at me with sticks" -Dogs were not family pets in those days. They were scavengers that were fended off, yet always around eating out of garbage heaps, being announces. They often followed armies. People through sticks and stones at them to keep them away. David was a small thin boy, much like the stick mentioned.

* "cursed David" -The enemy tried to discourage us by planting evil words.

>On what did Goliath depend? (45a)

* 1 Samuel 17:45a "David said to the Philistine, "You come against me with sword and spear and javelin"

* David knew of the enemies weapons.

>On what did David depend? (45b)

* 1 Samuel 17:45b "but I come against you in the name of the Lord Almighty, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied."

* "Lord Almighty" -Lord of hosts is another translation. The Lord God has an army consisting of angels, men, animals, and starts. This name of God is common in the books of 1 and 2 Samuel.

* "you have defied" -David proclaimed his faith to all there.

>What confidence did he have in God? (46)

* 1 Samuel 17:46 "This day the Lord will hand you over to me, and I'll strike you down and cut off your head. Today I will give the carcasses of the Philistine army to the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and the whole world will know that there is a God in Israel."

* "the Lord will hand you over to me" -The Lord works with his people who show faith in him and honor him. We are part of God's plan. He want to use us to display his glory, honor and power.

* "of the Philistine army" -Not only will the giant fall, but David knew that the entire Philistine army would fall. He announced it so that all could hear.

* "there is a God in Israel" -Not just an idol. All the world would know that God works on behalf of his people.

>9. According to verse 47, why would God give David the victory?

* 1 Samuel 17:47 "All those gathered here will know that it is not by sword or spear that the Lord saves; for the battle is the Lord's, and he will give all of you into our hands."

* "All those gathered" -David is speaking directly to his fellow Israelites who were quaking in fear.

* We need to encourage our brothers in the Lord. 1 Thessalonians 4:17-18 states, "After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. Therefore encourage each other with these words."

* 1 Thessalonians 5:10-11 states, "He died for us so that, whether we are awake or asleep, we may live together with him. Therefore encourage one another and build each other up, just as in fact you are doing.

>What is the significance of the truth that the battle is the LORD's?

* All the Lord requires of us is to preach the gospel and live by faith, hope, and love. He fights the battle. He makes the seed of faith grow and become a plant.

>10. Describe the fall of Goliath and David's victory. (48-51a)

* 1 Samuel 17:48-51a "As the Philistine moved closer to attack him, David ran quickly toward the battle line to meet him. Reaching into his bag and taking out a stone, he slung it and struck the Philistine on the forehead. The stone sank into his forehead, and he fell facedown on the ground. So David triumphed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone; without a sword in his hand he struck down the Philistine and killed him. David ran and stood over him. He took hold of the Philistine's sword and drew it from the scabbard. After he killed him, he cut off his head with the sword."

* "David ran to meet him" -When we have faith we will be bold.

* "stone sank into his forehead" -A serious concussion. David used an unlikely weapon.

* "fell facedown" -Goliath fell prostrate before David just as Dagon, the Philistine idol fell prostrate before the ark of the Lord.

* Goliath's armor bearer must have run in fear when David came running for Goliath who had just fallen.

* "cut off his head with the sword" -Jesus similar crushed the head of the devil. Genesis 3:14-15 states, "So the Lord God said to the serpent, 'Because you have done this, Cursed are you above all the livestock and all the wild animals! You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.'"

>What happened after David cut off Goliath's head? (51b-58)

* 1 Samuel 17:51b-58 ""When the Philistines saw that their hero was dead, they turned and ran. Then the men of Israel and Judah surged forward with a shout and pursued the Philistines to the entrance of Gath and to the gates of Ekron. Their dead were strewn along the Shaaraim road to Gath and Ekron. When the Israelites returned from chasing the Philistines, they plundered their camp. David took the Philistine's head and brought it to Jerusalem, and he put the Philistine's weapons in his own tent. As Saul watched David going out to meet the Philistine, he said to Abner, commander of the army, "Abner, whose son is that young man?" Abner replied, "As surely as you live, O king, I don't know." The king said, "Find out whose son this young man is." As soon as David returned from killing the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him before Saul, with David still holding the Philistine's head. "Whose son are you, young man?" Saul asked him. David said, "I am the son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem."

* "brought it to Jerusalem" -Jerusalem was not Israel territory yet, though the Israelites lived all around it. Jerusalem was part of the promised land and David would be the one to take it. (2 Sam. 5:1-9) David was parading the head around to enemy armies to show those in Jerusalem the work that the Lord can and will do. David's zeal for the Lord included conquering the promised land something the Israelites never completely finished.

* Through David's faith, the Lord blessed Israel.

* "Whose son are you" -David had been in the service of Saul, and he never took the time to get to know the young boy. He didn't even know David's father. David's selfish heart and demon problem make him unaware of those around him.

>How can you defeat your "Goliath"?

* By faith in the Lord Jesus Almighty.


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