The Blood of the Covenant
Comments for Study 28
Memory Verse: 24
BEFORE READING PLEASE CLICK HERE TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS.
BEFORE READING PLEASE CLICK HERE TO VIEW A MAP OF JERUSALEM IN JESUS' TIME.
BEFORE READING PLEASE CLICK HERE TO VIEW A CHART ON THE FEASTS.
An outline of this week is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as thier King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven.
Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)
* Note: The Passover is linked to the 14th days of the month not the day of the week. Passover starting on Thursday at twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go thru the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always on the first Sabbath after Passover), and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Sheaf Wave, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.
I. Preparation for the Passover (12-16)
>1. What was the customary sacrifice on the first day of the Unleavened Bread? (12a)
* Mark 14:12a "On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, when it was customary to sacrifice the Passover lamb..."
* "on the first day of the Feast" -Passover is the first day. Although it is a separate feast, the two are linked.
* "lamb" -they were to use up all of the lamb during the feast. The lamb had to be perfect, no blemishes, and one year old. (Exodus 12, Lev. 23, Numbers 9, Deut. 16)
* The feasts are symbols and foreshadows of Jesus the Messiah. I go into some detail concerning the past and future fulfillment of these feasts in my manuscript The Believer's Future - Hope that Inspires"
* All the things that they were required to do took planning.
>What did Jesus disciples ask about eating the Passover? (12b)
* Mark 14:12b "...Jesus' disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make preparations for you to eat the Passover?"
>2. How did Jesus make preparations for celebrating the Passover? (13-15)
* Mark 14:13-15 "So he sent two of his disciples, telling them, "Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him. Say to the owner of the house he enters, 'The Teacher asks: Where is my guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?' He will show you a large upper room, furnished and ready. Make preparations for us there."
* "two of his disciples" -Jesus always sent them out two by two. He never sent them out alone.
* Jesus had already prepared for this day. We are not told where. However, later Mark gives a hint that the was there when he was a very young man (51-52). So perhaps it was at Mark's parent's house.
>What did he want his disciples to learn through preparing for the Passover? (16)
* Mark 14:16 "The disciples left, went into the city and found things just as Jesus had told them. So they prepared the Passover."
* Faith in Jesus and his word.
* Stewardship and servitude.
* Co-working with each other and with Jesus.
* "the Lord" -"didaskalos" in Greek meaning master and teacher combined.
II. The Last Passover (17-21)
>3. After they assembled, what is the first thing Jesus told them? (17-18)
* Mark 14:17-18 "When evening came, Jesus arrived with the Twelve. While they were reclining at the table eating, he said, "I tell you the truth, one of you will betray me--one who is eating with me."
* "when evening came" -Twilight started the Passover day as any Hebrew day starts at twilight.
* "Jesus arrived with the Twelve" -no other were with him at this time. Anyone else mentioned from here out were either at the home or meet them at the mount of Olives.
* "reclining at the table eating" -In Jesus' day the tables were not tall and there were no chairs. Pillows and cushions were sometimes sat on and each person often reclined (leaned) on the next. Thus one person's shoulder was on the next or one's persons head rest on the side/chest of the next.
* The Passover takes a long time to eat. In fact most people took longer times to eat in those days than they do now. Mark does not include all the events and teaching that Jesus spoke. John records a lot more in chapters 13-17.
* Jesus' comment was not the type of thing one would bring up at the Passover meal. It was suppose to be time to think about the grace God had toward their forfathers when they were delivered/redeemed from slavery in Egypt.
* Jesus breaks from the normal celebrations of the Passover. He is not going to instituting a new celebration of the Passover. This is the beginning of what the church calls communion and the Lord's supper. This actually is the third type of Passover; the first only celebrated once when they left Egypt, the second was to be celebrated until the Messiah came, and the third is now being instituted by Jesus, the Messiah.
>What do they reveal about themselves in their reactions? (19)
* Mark 14:19 "They were saddened, and one by one they said to him, "Surely not I?"
* "saddened" -Disloyalty among the twelve was a deep blow to their moral. For quit sometime Jesus was dropping bits of information that went against their way of thinking and hopes, He talked his his death, his rejection by the Jewish leadership, the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, great tribulations, and now betrayal amongst the specially picked twelve.
* "surely not I?" -Doubt about their own lack of loyalty. In a way this was a confession of love and loyalty, though Judas was lying. They were also confessing it to one another so the other wouldn't think they were disloyal.
* They didn't know themselves or each other.
* Rather than thinking about Jesus being betrayed they thought about the person who would do it even if it was them.
* In each person, when we sin, we are being disloyal to Jesus. We are betraying his love.
>4.Why did Jesus give them a hint and a warning about the betrayer? (20-21)
* Mark 14:20-21 ""It is one of the Twelve," he replied, "one who dips bread into the bowl with me. The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him. But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born."
* So they could understand that Jesus know about Judas' betrayal when he finally did it.
* So they would examine their hearts.
* So Judas could have a chance to repent.
* So the disciples would know the agony that Jesus was going through.
>What reassuring word did Jesus give about his betrayal? (21a)
* Mark 14:21a "The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him.
* Matt. 26:25 shows that Jesus told Judas it would be him. The disciples next to Jesus heard this too.
* Judah had a change to repent. He did not.
* "was written about him" -Isaiah 53 being one.
* Jesus was saying no matter what Judas decides his sacrifice will still happen.
III. The Blood of the New Covenant (22-26)
>5. What did Jesus teach them through taking bread, giving thanks and breaking it? (22)
* Mark 14:22 "While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Take it; this is my body."
* Jesus gave thanks even though his death was near and one of his disciples was about to betray him.
* "Jesus took the bread, gave thanks, and broke it" -Jesus broke his own body and was thankful for doing it.
* "the bread" -unleavened bread, bread without yeast reflecting he was without sin.
>What does this mean to them and to us? (John 6:51)
* John 6:51 "I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."
* Jesus offered himself as the Lamb of God without blemish (sin).
* Jesus offers himself to us without any prerequisites on our part.
* Judas was eating with them.
* We have to accept Jesus, the perfect sacrifice into our whole body; we have to digest him. (John 6:41-71)
>6. What is the meaning of the cup from which they all drank? (23-24)
* Mark 14:23-24 "Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, and they all drank from it. "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many," he said to them."
>7. What is the meaning of the "blood of the covenant"?
* It is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:28)
* "of the covenant" -the old covenant (Mosaic) is similar to this new covenant, but not the same. Old -obey you will have life. New -accept and you will have life.
* There is blood of the Lamb in both cases.
* Jesus' blood is not from man. It is from God. In the book, The Chemistry of the Blood M. R. DeHann, M.D. explains the origin of blood: “The blood which flows in an unborn babe's arteries and veins is not derived from the mother but is produced within the body of the fetus… It is only after the sperm has entered the ovum and a fetus begins to develop that blood appears. As a very simple illustration of this, think of the egg of a hen. An non-fertilized egg is simply an ovum on a much larger scale than the human ovum. You may incubate this non-fertilized hen'’s egg, but it will never develop. It will dry up completely but no chick will result. But let that egg be fertilized by the introduction of the male sperm and incubation will bring to light the presence of life in an embryo. After a few hours it visibly develops. In a little while red streaks occur, denoting the presence of blood According to scientists from the time of conception to the time of birth not ONE SINGLE DROP OF BLOOD ever passes from mother to child The mother contributes no blood at all.”
>In what sense is this new covenant superior to the old one? (Ex. 24:4-7; Jer. 31:31; Lk. 22:20; Heb. 9:15)
* Exodus 24:4-7 "Moses then wrote down everything the LORD had said. He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he sent young Israelite men, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offerings to the LORD. Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and the other half he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people. They responded, "We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey."
* Jeremiah 31:31 ""The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah."
* Luke 22:20 "In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you."
* Hebrews 9:15 "For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance--now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant.
* Manna, Aaron's staff, the stone written by God are signs of the old covenant. They were placed in the ark. Unleavened bread and wine are the sign of the new covenant. They are placed in our bodies and the Holy Spirit is the seal.
* New is a covenant of the Messiah's suffering.
* Moses was the mediator of the old covenant. That is why it is often called the Mosaic covenant.
* The Mosaic covenant was between God and Israel (and the aliens with them). God would make them a nation of priest if they would keep his laws. (Exodus 24)
* The old is kept and based on the law. The new is kept and based on God's grace.
>8. What promise does he plant in their hearts through this event? (25-26)
* Mark 14:25-26 "I tell you the truth, I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it anew in the kingdom of God." When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives."
>What hope does Jesus give to his disciples and us through this promise? (25b; 2 Pet. 1:3,4,11)
* Mark 14:25b "...until that day when I drink it anew in the kingdom of God."
* 2Pe 1:3-4 "His divine power has given us everything we need for life and godliness through our knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and goodness. Through these he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature and escape the corruption in the world caused by evil desires."
* 2Pe 1:11 "and you will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ."
* My manuscript (book) The Believer's Future - Hope That Inspires is all about the meaning of "the kingdom of God" and what God has planned for us in it.