Matthew 27:1-56 Comments by Stephen Ricker
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Jesus Was Crucified
Comments for Study 33

Matthew 27:1-56
Memory Verse: 2

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Passion Week Events

* Jesus had just left the temple where he pronounced woes against the religious leaders and cried for Jerusalem. A time line is as follows.
    Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
    Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
    Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt. 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
    Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as thier King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
    Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
    Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
    Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
    Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven. (1 Peter 3:18-20)
    Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
    A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
    Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)

* Note: The Passover is linked to the 14th days of the month not the day of the week. Passover starting on Thursday at twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go thru the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always on the first Sabbath after Passover), and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Sheaf Wave, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.

I. The Tragic End of Judas Iscariot (1-10)

>1. What had the chief priests and elders been doing all night?

* Matthew 26:59 states, "The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death."

* Also, they had been questioning Jesus about his teaching and his disciples. (John 18:19)

* Matthew 26:67-68 says of the guards, "Then they spit in his face and struck him with their fists. Others slapped him and said, 'Prophesy to us, Christ. Who hit you?'"

* Luke 22:65 says, "And they said many other insulting things to him."

* Mark 14:65b adds, "...And the guards took him and beat him."

>What decision did they reach?

* "Early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people came to the decision to put Jesus to death." (1)

* "Early in the morning" -The sun was rising, though by the Hebrew definition the day had started at twilight the evening before.

* "all" -No exceptions. All were guilty for rejecting the Messiah and condemned him to death by crucifixion.

>Why did they send Jesus to Pilate?

* Matthew 27:2 "They bound him, led him away and handed him over to Pilate, the governor."

* The Jewish religious leaders did not have authority to put Jesus to death by Roman proclamation. (John 18:31)

* After the Jewish leaders reached the verdict they had to come up with a way to enforce it without without getting in trouble with Rome.

* "They bound him" -They thought that he might run away and it gave the appearance that he was a violent criminal.

* "handed him over to" -The Jews were guilty, not it was time for Rome to be guilty.

* "Pilate, the governor" -Pilate was the Roman appointed governor (procurator) of the area; probably appointed by Caesar. Many in Rome were anti-Semite including Pilate. His reign started in A.D. 26. Tablets with his name on it have been found in Palestine. LUke 13:1 records where he mingled Galelean's blood with their sacrifice. He had put up a Roman emblem in the temple and removed it only when the Jews said they will die trying to move it themselves. He commited other acts that upset the Jews and the Samaritans. His position was in jeopardy at this time. Shortly after Jesus crucifixion he was called back to Rome. Pilate was a highly successful man until shortly after he was made governor of Palestine.

* The Roman government and soldiers were not always in Jerusalem. They had made Ceasarea their regional capital. The Roman governor and soldiers came in force to Jerusalem during every Jewish feast, especially Passover simply because around two million people were present.

* Rome had had authority over Jerusalem for less than one hundred years by this time. In 37 B.C. the Romans conquered Jerusalem from the Parthians. Herod the Great becomes king of Judea and Ananelus is installed as High Priest, both positions seized from Antigonus II Mattathias after a five-month siege. Thousands of Jews were slaughtered by Roman troops supporting Herod.

* Jacob's prophecy is fulfilled, "The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his." (Genesis 49:10)

>2. Why was Judas seized with remorse?

* "When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse..." (3a)

* "Jesus was condemned" -He saw that Jesus was condemned. (3) It seems that he didn't expect that this would happen because it says, "he knew he had betrayed innocent blood." (4)

* "seized with remorse" -Remorse is bitter regret. Remorse can lead to repentance and asking God for forgiveness. Judas did not do either of these.

* If Judas had truly believed Jesus' words instead of his own idea he would not have gotten to this point. If our intentions, good or otherwise, is not within God's word and will they end tragically.

* The second son in Jesus' parable of the two sons is like Judas, Jesus said, "'Then the father went to the other son and said the same thing. He answered, 'I will, sir,' but he did not go. 'Which of the two did what his father wanted?' 'The first,' they answered. Jesus said to them, 'I tell you the truth, the tax collectors and the prostitutes are entering the kingdom of God ahead of you.'" (Matthew 21:30-31)

>How did he try to undo what he had done?

* "(He) returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders." (3b)

* When he agreed to betray Jesus the thirty pieces looked good and fine just as the forbidden fruit did to Eve. Now the thirty pieces were undesirable. We often find that wanting is not the same as having.

* The way to utter ruin and remorse is a slow slop down sin. The only way out is to turn to God. Another example is when Abraham went to Egypt.

* A guilty conscience unheeded leads to death.

* Judas became a witness to the religious leaders that Jesus was an innocent man.

>What did the chief priests and elders say to him?

* "'What is that to us?' they replied, 'That's your responsibility.'" (4b)

* They were saying, "what is the condition of your soul to us? You are full or remorse, so what? Why should we worry or care about how you feel? Why tell us your sin? What do you expect us to do about it? You've had a change of heart, so what?" The very men who were to offer sacrifices for the sins of the people didn't care for the people. Their sacrifices meant nothing to God because of their lack of compassion and love.

* Once evil men get what they want from people they despise them and chase them out.

>What did he do?

* "So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself." (5)

* "threw the money into the temple" -Exodus 21:32 "If the bull gores a male or female slave, the owner must pay thirty shekels of silver to the master of the slave, and the bull must be stoned."

* "hanged himself" -Perhaps Judas believed that his sin was greater than the forgiving grace and so showing he didn't know Jesus at all.

* Judas tried to solve his sin problem his own way. There is no record that he prayed and confessed his sin. It might have even been possible for him to approach Jesus and ask for forgiveness.

>How is remorse different from repentance?

* Remorse is bitter regret that stems from acknowledgement of error. Remorse and regret do not lead to a change for the better. A regretful person may try to undo what was done on their own without turning to God in humble faith, sincere trust, and obedience.

* Remorse comes from a low commitment level to God and is negative in nature and outcome. Regret does not end in salvation because it contains pride.

* Remorse that leads to suicide is also trying to solve or end the error on one's own terms.

* Saul was a man of regret. Judas was a man of regret.

* Repentance means to turn to God, acknowledge ones fault, and asking for forgiveness and help. Repentance is a change of heart, mind, and actions toward God and away from sin.

* Repentance comes from a firm commitment to God and is positive in nature and outcome.

* Repentance incorporates humility before God and man. Repentance acknowledges that the guilty cannot undo what has been done and there will be unpleasant consequences. Repentance acknowledges that redeem theirselves and lacks power to deal with the real problem.

* Repentance incorportates the truth that we cannot atone for our sins.

>3. Why had he betrayed Jesus?

* He had not accepted Jesus as God's Messiah. He had his own idea of what the Messiah should be. Human history is full of people who do not accept God as he is, instead they take out or add to the truth about God with the result of a lie. God is God as revealed in the Bible and as inspired by the Holy Spirit.

* Jesus did not meet up to Judas' idea of what the Messiah would be especially when pride was hurt when Jesus rebuked him. (26:8-15) So he sought profit from the one he rejected. When he discovered is error he did not repent of his love of money, things of the world, and >worldly dreams and desires.

>What did he gain?

* At first thirty pieces of silver, but then he throw them in the temple. (5)

* Any selfish against as the cost of losing Christ and the truth eventually become a loss. A heavy price is attached to rejecting the truth.

* 1 Timothy 6:9-10 "People who want to get rich fall into temptation and a trap and into many foolish and harmful desires that plunge men into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some people, eager for money, have wandered from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs."

* Matthew 6:24 "No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and Money."

>What can we learn from Judas' failure?

* We must accept Jesus as the Christ, as he is presented in the Bible and not only acknowledge sins but repent.

* We must accept love God more than anything. We cannot love God and money.

* Sin doesn't pay.

>What happened to his money?

* "The chief priests picked up the coins and said, 'It is against the law to put this into the treasury, since it is blood money.' So they decided to use the money to buy the potter's field as a burial place for foreigners. That is why it has been called the Field of Blood to this day.'" (5-8)

* "potter's field" -Called this because either some potters had owned or occupied it and left broken pottery there, or lived nearby and used it as a place to put broken pottery.

* "foreigners" -The Jews didn't want to have anything to do with or be near Gentiles even in death and burial. This shows their pride and total lack of understanding of the heart of God.

>What does this show us about God's sovereignty in these events?

* "Then what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: 'They took the thirty silver cons, the price set on him by the people of Israel, and they used them to buy the potter's field, as the Lord commanded me.'" (9-10)

* Zechariah 11:12-13 "I told them, "If you think it best, give me my pay; but if not, keep it." So they paid me thirty pieces of silver. And the Lord said to me, "Throw it to the potter"--the handsome price at which they priced me! So I took the thirty pieces of silver and threw them into the house of the Lord to the potter."

* See also Jeremiah 19:1-13 and 32:6-9.

* All was determined and foresaw by God.

* Satan, the chief priest, and no force of evil was in control and still is not in control as some claim.

II. Jesus Suffered for Our Sins (11-44)

>4. What was the charge against Jesus?

* "Meanwhile Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him, 'Are you the king of the Jews?'" (11a)

* "King of the Jews" -Pilate could not kill him for blaspheme, the charge the chief priest declared. Blaspheme against the God of the Israel was not a crime in Rome. So Pilate, being a typical politician looked for a way to please the Jews. He looked for the one crime he believed would help him, trying to rebel against Roman rule.

>How did Jesus answer?

* "'Yes, it is as you say,' Jesus replied." (11b)

* Jesus told the truth when truth could make a difference. Pilate would now have to decide to do the right thing or seek selfish gain.

* John included some more of this one-to-one conversation. John 18:34-39 states, "Is that your own idea," Jesus asked, "or did others talk to you about me?" "Am I a Jew?" Pilate replied. "It was your people and your chief priests who handed you over to me. What is it you have done?" Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." "What is truth?" Pilate asked. With this he went out again to the Jews and said, "I find no basis for a charge against him. But it is your custom for me to release to you one prisoner at the time of the Passover. Do you want me to release 'the king of the Jews'?"

* Jesus could confess the truth even though he knew it would mean his death because he had prayed and overcome man's natural tendency of self preservation. He acted in love and obedience.

>Why was Pilate amazed by Jesus?

* "When he was accused by the chief priests and the elders, he gave no answer. Then Pilate asked him, 'Don't you hear the testimony they are bringing against you?' But Jesus made no reply, not even to a single charge-to the great amazement of the governor." (12-14)

* "he gave no answer" -Jesus did not answer when there was no point. They were going to do what they wanted to do no matter what. Jesus is perhaps the only person in world history that said nothing under this circumstances.

* As a king Jesus showed dignity and honor the complete opposite of Pilate, the chief priests, and the elders.

* God says nothing to people such as the chief priests and the elders. Pray all they want, sacrifice all they want, read the Bible all they want; he will remain silent.

>How did Isaiah describe Jesus? (Isa. 53:7)

* "He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth." (Isa. 553:7)

* Jesus had studied and meditated on the Scriptures, knowing and making sure that they were fulfilled. Yet, his very nature caused him to remain silent.

>5. What was Plate's personal conclusion about Jesus? (18-19)

* "'For he knew it was out of envy that they had handed Jesus over to him. While Pilate was sitting on the judge's seat, his wife sent him this message: 'Don't have anything to do with that innocent man, for I have suffered a great deal today in a dream because of him.'" (18-19)

* Pilate had a clear message that Jesus was innocent.

* Pilate knew the real reason Jesus was handed over to him, envy.

* Pilate had committed many wicked things before this. As noted above Luke 13:1 states, "Now there were some present at that time who told Jesus about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices." He also put a Roman emblem on the temple and diverted temple offerings for personal buildings. Pilate only lived for the here and now. Yet, right now he had a chance to repent. He did not. He too is guilty.

>How did he compromise instead of following the truth?

* "Now it was the governor's custom at the Feast to release a prisoner chosen by the crowd. At the time they had a notorious prisoner, called Barabbas. So when the crowd had gathered, Pilate asked them, 'Which one do you want me to release to you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?'" (15-17)

* Pilate tried to gain at Jesus' expense. He used his power for personal gain, not justice. This is an example of why sinful man is not able to rule himself. Apart from God there is not justice for the innocent, weak, and powerless.

* Pilate was proud and smart, but not wise.

* Judas, the chief priests, the elders, and Pilate all tried to gain something from Jesus. Jesus gained something for others at his own expense. What is your motives? Who is Jesus to you?

>How else did he try to escape the responsibility?

* "'Which of the two do you want me to release to you?' asked the governor. 'Barabbas,l they answered. 'What shall I do, then, with Jesus who is called Christ?' Pilate asked. They all answered, 'Crucify him!'" (21-22)

* Because of selfish greed Pilate is guilty.

* "But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowd to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus executed." (20)

* Pilate was out manoeuvred by evil men.

* "Then he released Barabbas to them. But he had Jesus flogged, and handed him over to be crucified." (26)

* There is not escape for the unrepentant.

>How did the crowd respond? (25)

* "When Pilate saw that he was getting nowhere, but that instead an uproar was starting, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd. "I am innocent of this man's blood," he said. "It is your responsibility!" All the people answered, "Let his blood be on us and on our children!'" (24-25)

* The crowd was there for the Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and many would stay till Pentecost (forty-nine days later). They were Jews from many countries. Many were the same ones who only days earlier praised him as he entered Jerusalem on a donkey.

>Who was responsible for Jesus' death?

* "Let his blood be on us" -I was responsible for Jesus' death, for it was for the forgiveness of my sins that he was flogged, crucified, and died. His blood is on me.

* Hebrews 9:14 states the effective nature of Jesus' blood, "How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!"

* Jesus became guilt by freely taking on my sins.

* The sinful nature says that we are not responsible.

Jesus Scourged

See a wood engraving by Gustave Dore (1832-1883) to the right. Dore's drawings were in Bibles that are now in public domain. This one was scanned in by creationism.org.

>6. What does it mean that Jesus was flogged?

* "had him flogged" -Flogging was placing metal, chipped pieces of clay, and other sharp objects at the end of a short whip and lashing it against a person's back. Flogging was so brutal that often the victim died before crucifixion.

* Pilate flogged Jesus believing it was for his own good. Pilate believed the flogging would gain sympathy and thus the Jews would allow him to live.

* "Praetorium" -The governor's official residence in Jerusalem. It is believed that the Praetorium was part of the Roman fortress at the north east corner of the temple. The fortress had several towers that over looked everything in the city including the temple.

* Speaking to David about the Messiah the Lord said, "I will also give you rest from all your enemies. "'The Lord declares to you that the Lord himself will establish a house for you: When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom. He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men. But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.'" (2 Samuel 7:11b-16) Jesus did not do wrong, but by this time the wrong I committed was on him. And so the Lord flogged him.

Jesus Mocked

See a wood engraving by Gustave Dore (1832-1883) to the right. Dore's drawings were in Bibles that are now in public domain. This one was scanned in by creationism.org.

>How did the soldiers mock him?

* "Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole company of soldiers around him. They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on him head. They put a staff in his right hand and knelt in front of him and mocked him. 'Hail, king of the Jews!' they said. They spit on him, and took the staff and struck him on the head again and again. After they had mocked him, they took off the robe and put his own clothes on him, Then they led him away to crucify him." (27-31)

* "scarlet robe" -The outer cloak of a Roman soldier.

* "staff" -A mock scepter.

* Jesus was mocked in my place. My sins made me the subject of mockery. Yet, when Jesus took my sins in his body he became a mockery.

>Why did he have to suffer like this? (Isa. 53:5)

* "But he was pierced for our transgressions, he ws crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed." (Isa. 53:5)

* Jesus is the perfect sacrifice because he alone is of the seed of God. His blood alone in the entire human race is and was pure. As Paul says he is the second (last) Adam. (1 Cor. 15:22, 45) Leviticus 17:11-12a states, “For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one's life." Hebrews 9:22b states, without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.”
    In his book, The Chemistry of the Blood, M. R. DeHann, M.D. explains the origin of blood: “The blood which flows in an unborn babes arteries and veins is not derived from the mother but is produced within the body of the fetus It is only after the sperm has entered the ovum and a fetus begins to develop that blood appears. As a very simple illustration of this, think of the egg of a hen. A egg not fertilized is simply an ovum on a much larger scale than the human ovum. You may incubate this unfertilized hen’'s egg, but it will never develop. It will dry up completely but no chick will result. But let that egg be fertilized by the introduction of the male sperm and incubation will bring to light the presence of life in an embryo. After a few hours it visibly develops. In a little while red streaks occur, denoting the presence of blood. According to scientists from the time of conception to the time of birth not ONE SINGLE DROP OF BLOOD ever passes from mother to child The mother contributes no blood at all.”
    Jesus pure blood was not conveyed by his mother, the daughter of sinful Adam. Rather, it was conveyed by the pure seed of his Heavenly Father!
    Centrioles are supplied by the father'’s sperm. A centriole is the center of a centrosome and is a minute protoplasmic body. Plasma is the fluid part of blood and protoplasm is organized living matter, the fluid complex of the living nucleus that is often designated the physical basis of life. The basis of life is in the father'’s protoplasmic seed: a seed made of fluid and plasma – water and blood. Jesus came by just such a seed. John tells us there is one who came by water and blood – Jesus Christ (1 John 5:6) John also tells us that when Jesus died he saw the blood and water come out of Jesus side separately, thus marking his death. (Source, In Search of Israel by Batya Wootten.)
    Through his act of love Jesus bride was cleansed of sin by his pure blood. (Rom. 4:25) Thus, Jesus was able to re-establish the lost love relationship with his bride. God and anyone in the human race who wants it can have a relationship again. As a symbol of this, when Jesus died on the cross, the curtain that separated the most holy of holies from the place where priests could stand in the temple in Jerusalem was torn in two. (Matt. 27:51) The curtain was the symbol of sin separating God from his people. With Jesus’ death for his bride, sin was removed and thus no longer would Jesus be separated from his bride. (Col. 1:19-21)

* The above is taken from the manuscript The Believer's Future - Hope That Inspires.

Jesus Arrives at Calvary

See a wood engraving by Gustave Dore (1832-1883) to the right. Dore's drawings were in Bibles that are now in public domain. This one was scanned in by creationism.org.

>7. What do verses 32-34 reveal about his weakness and his strength?

* "As they were going out, they met a man from Cyrene, named Simon, and they forced him to carry the cross. They came to a place called Golgotha (which means The Place of the Skull). There they offered Jesus wine to drink, mixed with gall, but after tasting it, he refused to drink it." (32-34)

* His body was so weak that he could no longer carry the cross to the place of execution.

* He refused the drink because it contained wine which could have weakened him so that when Satan's temptations came it would have been hard from him to overcome. This shows he had control of his body and will.

* "Cyrene" -Cyrene is in northern Africa in the area of modern day Libya. It was a very prosperous area at the time.

* Simon was in Jerusalem for the feast. From that distance it probably cost a lot of money to travel there.

* Simon came for the feast probably as a Jewish convert or a slave/servant of a Jewish convert. He was not expecting this.

* "they forced him" -The cross of Jesus may be thrust on us suddenly, without warning. Jesus said we are to carry the cross. He taught, "and anyone who does not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of me. Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it." (Matthew 10:38-39)

* Jesus was fully man and fully God. The fact that his human body was to weak to carry the cross shows that he was human.

* "Golgotha" -Golgotha was just outside the city at a gate on the main road. See map.

* Hebrews 13:11-12 says, "The high priest carries the blood of animals into the Most Holy Place as a sin offering, but the bodies are burned outside the camp. And so Jesus also suffered outside the city gate to make the people holy through his own blood."

* Isaac was offered there, on Mt. Moriah. (Genesis 22:2, and 2 Chronicles 3:1)

* The guards would take the longest route to get there to let all know of the power of Rome.

* "place of the skull" -Perhaps because so many people were executed there or perhaps the rock formation looked like a skull.

* According to Luke two others were crucified with Jesus. Jesus being crucified with murderers fulfilled prophecy (Isa. 53:12)

* "wine to drink, mixed with gall" -meant to numb the pain. Jesus took the full extent of the suffering.

Erection of Jesus' Cross

See a wood engraving by Gustave Dore (1832-1883) to the right. Dore's drawings were in Bibles that are now in public domain. This one was scanned in by creationism.org.

>What did the soldiers do at Golgotha? (35-37)

* "When they had crucified him, they divided up his clothes by casting lots. And sitting down, they kept watch over him there. Above his head they placed the written charge against him: THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS. Two robbers were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left." (35-38)

* "they divided up his clothes" -Psalms 22:18 "They divide my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing."

* "THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS" -They meant it as a mockery to Jews. God meant it to display the truth and to remind them that they rejected their king. They will not do so the second time he comes. They will cry out to him, and he will come to rescue them.

* Through union with Jesus we can die to the sinful nature.

* Through union with Jesus we will gain eternal life. We will be like him.

>Why did Jesus have to be so wounded and crushed? (Isa. 53:10, 1 Peter 2:24)

* "Yet it was the LORD's will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though the LORD makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of the LORD will prosper in his hand." (Isa. 53:10)

* "He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed." (1 Pet. 2:24)

* Isaiah 53:5 "But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed."

* Isaiah 53:12 "Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors."

>Think about the confession of the Roman centurion and those with him. (54)

* "When the centurion and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified, and exclaimed, 'Surely he was the Son of God!'" (54)

* They were soldiers and therefore use to death, killing and crucifixions. Their hard hearts had been hardened to suffering. Yet they were moved by Jesus' actions and words on the cross. At first they mocked him. But as he hung on the cross hour after hour they were amazed at Jesus' demeanour. They knew that he had given up his life. Then, at this death all of creation displayed his divinity.

>8. Who reviled Jesus? How?

* "Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads and saying, 'You who are going to destroy the temple and build it in three days, save yourself! Come down from the cross, if you are the Son of God!'" (39-40)

* "In the same way the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the elders mocked him. 'He saved others,' they said, 'But he can't save himself! He's the King of Israel! Let him come down now from the cross, and we will believe in him. He trusts in God. Let God rescue him now if he wants him, for he said, 'I am the Son of God.''" (41-43)

* "In the same way the robbers who were crucified with him also heaped insults on him." (44)

* Psalms 22:7-8 "All who see me mock me; they hurl insults, shaking their heads: "He trusts in the Lord; let the Lord rescue him. Let him deliver him, since he delights in him." "

* Psalms 22:16 "Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evil men has encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my feet."

* The Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and the First Fruit Wave Sheaf was the most busiest time of the year for priests. They should have been in the temple doing their job, but they took out time to mock Jesus.

>Why did he not come down from the cross and save himself?

* God's will was for him to die on the cross for his people's redemption. If he would come down he would have went against this will and there would be no redemption of sins.

* Satan attempted through evil men to force Jesus to come down from the cross.

* Jesus' followers are often tempted in reasonable arguments to give up our cross of mission too.

* 1 Peter 5:8-9 "Be self-controlled and alert. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour. Resist him, standing firm in the faith, because you know that your brothers throughout the world are undergoing the same kind of sufferings."

* James 4:7 "Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you."

>How did the chief priests try to make him doubt God's love?

* "In the same way the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the elders mocked him. 'He saved others,' they said, 'But he can't save himself! He's the King of Israel! Let him come down now from the cross, and we will believe in him. He trusts in God. Let God rescue him now if he wants him, for he said, 'I am the Son of God.''" (41-43)

* They were saying, "Prove you are the Messiah," in discuss and dashed hopes. They implied God did not love him. They were saying he is nothing. Yet if he would have done what they suggested he would have disqualified himself as the Messiah.

* Unbelievers often mock our mission too.

* Satan uses people's words to try to get us to give up the mission God has given us. He may even use people who are in the place of leadership, especially spiritual leadership.

* Jesus did not respond to them. Sometimes it is best not to respond to mockers.

* Jesus lost everything from a human point of view;
    his close friend betrayed him
    his friends deserted him
    he was given an illegal trial
    his people made false accusation against him
    he was condemned to death for telling the truth
    his close friend denied him three times
    he was handed over under false pretences so that he would be crucified
    he was mocked
    he was humiliated
    he was beaten
    he was spit on
    he was scorned
    he was flogged
    his flesh was ripped from his body
    his blood poured out on the rocks of Jerusalem
    his kingship was travestied
    he was forced to carry his cross
    his joints were popped so he could be crucified
    he was nailed to the cross
    he was given a foul drink
    he was mocked by a nation he created
    his people did not recognize him
    his people rejected his loving leadership
    his people taught him as he hung on the cross
    his people laughed at his kingship
    his creation grew dark when he hung on the cross
    his creation shock when he gave up his spirit
    he died
    he was buried
    yet that is not all
    he fulfilled scripture
    he rose from the dead
    he conquered sin and death
    he ascended to heaven
    he sat at the right hand of God, his Father
    he spread his gospel to the ends of the earth
    he is coming again in power, glory, and honor
    he will destroy Babylon
    he will lock Satan in hell
    he is my LORD God Almighty
    he is Jesus, Y'shua, the Lamb of God and King of Israel
    he is worthy of praise and honor forever more. Amen.

III. Jesus Died for Our Sins (45-56)

Jesus on the cross

>9. What did Jesus cry from the cross?

* "About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voiice, 'Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?' -which means, 'My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?'" (46)

* "the ninth hour" -The Hebrew days is not like our day. The Hebrew day starts at sunset (twilight), goes through the night and into daylight until sunset. At daylight it is one, or the first hour.

* Mark 15:25 states, "It was the third hour when they crucified him." And Mark 15:33 states, "At the sixth hour darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour."

* Jesus was on the cross six hours Hebrew time. Six hours of work like the six days of creation.

* Proverbs 18:14 "A man's spirit sustains him in sickness, but a crushed spirit who can bear?"

* Jesus' cry was a real expression of agony.

* Jesus knew the answer to his own question. He wanted to express his agony so we would know what he did for us.

* Jesus showed his humanity.

>What does it mean?

* It is a quote from Psalm 22:1.

* It is the cry of agony that the Messiah would and did cry out from the cross.

* Jesus took upon himself our sins. When he did that he became a curse of God, like all sinful men. Being cursed from God he was under God's wrath. Having sin in his body, the holy God seperated himself from him. This was great agony for Jesus who had a perfect, complete and holy relationship with God from the beginning.

* The result of sin is separation from God; suffering in flesh, mind, and spirit follows.

* Jesus was completely isolated.

* Psalms 69:1-4 "Save me, O God, for the waters have come up to my neck. I sink in the miry depths, where there is no foothold. I have come into the deep waters; the floods engulf me. I am worn out calling for help; my throat is parched. My eyes fail, looking for my God. Those who hate me without reason outnumber the hairs of my head; many are my enemies without cause, those who seek to destroy me. I am forced to restore what I did not steal."

>Why was this such great agony to Jesus? (Isa. 59:2; 53:6b, 12c)

* "But your iniquities have separated you from you God, your sins have hidden his face from you, so that he will not hear." (Isa. 59:2)

* "...and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all." (Isa. 53:6b)

* "...For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors." (Isa. 59:2)

* Because of our sin on Jesus, God had forsaken him; God left him.

* All who do not put their sins on Jesus will experience for eternity the agony of separation from the loving God.

>What happened at the moment of Jesus' death? (51-53)

* "At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook and the rocks split. The tombs broke open and the bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people." (51-53)

* "Make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen, with cherubim worked into it by a skilled craftsman. Hang it with gold hooks on four posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold and standing on four silver bases. Hand the curtain from the clasps and place the ark of the Testimony bhind the curtain. The curtain will separate the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place. Put the atonement cover on the ark of the Testimony in the Most Holy Place. Place the table outside the curtain on the north side of the tabernacle and put the lamp stand opposite it on the south side." (Exodus 26:31-35)

* "There, about the cover between the two cherubim that are over the ark of the Testimony, I will meet with you and give you all my commands for the Israelites." (Ex. 25:22)

* "But only the high priest entered the inner room, and that only once a year, and never without blood, which he offered for himself and for the sins the people had committed in ignorance." (Hebrews 9:11-12)

* "When Christ came as high priest of the good things that are already here, he went through the greater and more perfect tabernacle that is not man-made, that is to say, not a part of this creation. He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but he entered the Most Holy Place once for all by his own blood, having obtained eternal redemption." (Hebrews 9:11-12)

* "Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that is, his body, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near to God with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled to cleanse us form a guilty conscience and having our bodies washed with pure water." (Hebrews 10:19-22)

* "curtain torn in two" -signifies Jesus opened the way for all to enter a relationship with God. Now we can go to God easily.

* This curtain was not weak or thin. It took a lot to tear it.

* Jesus' death alone opens the way for man to be one with God.

* Hebrews 6:19-20

>What does his death mean to us? (cf. Heb. 9:7, 25, 26; 1 Tim. 2:5)

* "But only the high priest entered the inner room, and that only once a year, and never without blood, which he offered for himself and for the sins the people had committed in ignorance." (Hebrews 9:7)

* "Nor did he enter heaven to offer himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood that is not his own. Then Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself." (Hebrews 9:25-26)

* "For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." (1 Tim. 2:5)

* "For he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace, and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility. He came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near. For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit." (Ephesians 2:14-18)

* Sin is abolished so now we can enter his kingdom, his presence.

>10. Think about the meaning of Jesus' obedience to death. (Philippians 2:6-8; Hebrews 5:8-9)

* "Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death-even death on a cross!" (Philippians 2:6-8)

* "Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him." (Heb. 5:8, 9)

* Suffering in obedience is a process of learning.

>Why is Jesus' death on the cross a great victory?

* Death demolished. Sin demolished.

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