I Will Celebrate Before the Lord
Comments for Study 2
2 Samuel 5:1-6:23
Memory Verse: 6:14-15
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I. Jerusalem (5:1-25)
>1. Why did all the tribes come to David? (1-3)
* 2 Samuel 5:1-3 "All the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron and said, "We are your own flesh and blood. In the past, while Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel on their military campaigns. And the Lord said to you, 'You will shepherd my people Israel, and you will become their ruler.' When all the elders of Israel had come to King David at Hebron, the king made a compact with them at Hebron before the Lord, and they anointed David king over Israel."
* "All the tribes of Israel" -Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Zebuhun, Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Benjamin, Dan, Asshur, Gad, and Naphtali. (Num. 1:1-16; Deut. 33)
* "Hebron" -David had been living in and acting as king of Judah in Hebron. Hebron was Judah's main city at the time. See previous study for details on Hebron.
>What was the basis of recognizing David as their ruler? (2)
* "We are your own flesh and blood" -They were saying that they had a common ancestor in Jacob (renamed Israel). This was a requirement of any leader of Israel. (Deut. 17:15)
* "on their military campaigns" -They recognized that during Saul's reign David was leading the army until David was forced into exile by Saul. The main reason that Israel had asked for a king was so that they "could be like all the other nations." In other nations the kings fought the wars. Israel was tired of fighting battles and being subjects of their enemies. Saul, though appointed him, had stepped out of the role of military leader and placed David in that position.
* "the Lord said to you" -Samuel had anointed David in secret so that Saul would not kill either of them. Slowly the word got out that David was anointed the next king of Israel. Saul and his oldest son, Jonathan had eventually recognized and accepted that David was going to be the next king of Israel.
* "You will shepherd my people Israel" -Jacob called God his shepherd who lead him throughout his life. (Gen. 48:15, 49:24) Moses prayed, "May the Lord, the God of the spirits of all mankind, appoint a man over this community to go out and come in before them, one who will lead them out and bring them in, so the Lord's people will not be like sheep without a shepherd." (Num. 27:16-17) The Lord called all of the rulers of Israel, whom he appointed shepherds of his people. (2 Sam. 7:7) Tyndale Old Testament Commentary Series states, "Rulers being called the people's shepherd is also used in Sumeria, Babylon, and Egypt. The consciousness that the Lord was the shepherd of Israel (PS. 23, 74:1, 77:20, 78:52, 80:1, 95:7) meant that Israel's human shepherds had before them the highest possible model of faithfulness, justice and loving kindness. By their exercise of these qualities they were judged."
* "you will become their ruler" -Because David was their relative, a good military leader, and called by the Lord, Israel accepted that David was their next king. He meet their three requirements.
* "the king made a compact with them at Hebron" -The compact was made on a shepherd/sheep relationship.
* "before the Lord" -The Lord would be witness that both parties were to keep their part of the compact.
* "they anointed David king over Israel" -Though the Lord's anointing is all that is needed to be official, the people have to also accept. This is similar to the laying on of hands in the church.
* Jesus told Peter, "Feed my sheep." (John 21:17) Jesus was saying that Peter was to be leader of the people of the kingdom of God who are on this earth. His primary role was to teach and preach the word of God. Then Peter wrote, "To the elders among you, I appeal as a fellow elder, a witness of Christ's sufferings and one who also will share in the glory to be revealed: Be shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, serving as overseers--not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve; not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock. And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away." (1 Peter 5:1-4)
* 1 Chronicles 11 and 12 are parallel chapters.
>What do you learn from David who waited for seven years and 6 months to unite the people of Northern Israel and Judah? (4-5)
* 2 Samuel 5:4-5 "David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years. In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years."
* "David was thirty years old" -David was born in 1,040 B.C. 2 Samuel 2:11 states that the length of time that David was in Hebron as king of Judah was seven years and six months. Thus David was twenty-two when he left Ziklag. 1 Samuel 30:9 says that David had six hundred men traveling with him at the time. David had accomplished much in the name of the Lord at such a young age. Now at the age of thirty he was king of all Israel.
* Thirty years old was considered the idea age to start leadership service in the name of the Lord. Numbers 4:3 states, "Count all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who come to serve in the work in the Tent of Meeting." Luke 3:23 states that Jesus was about thirty when he started his public ministry. "Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli."
* "when he became king" -David was a young boy when he was anointed to be the king of Israel. (1 Sam. 16:13) He served in Saul's house as arm bearer and musician, and in his father's house as a shepherd. (1 Sam. 16:21) As a teenager he was continually promoted in the military until he was all but the head of Israel's army. (1 Sam. 18:5, 30) Saul's jealously drove David into exile. (1 Sam. 20:42) He moved from place to place and eventually was forced to live in Ziklag, a Philistine occupied Israeli city, for one year and four months. (1 Sam. 27:7) All this was training so David would learn to trust in the Lord and call upon his name in any and every situation.
* David could have forced his reign on Israel. He didn't. Instead he waited until their hearts were ready. Similarly Jesus could mark in and force his rule on Israel and even the world. Instead he waits until people's hearts are ready to accept him as king. Slowly Gentiles have been one-by-one accepting Jesus' reign in their hearts and their lives for two thousand years. The same can be said for Israel (most say Jews even though they are only two tribes of Israel). However, a time is slowly dawning when more and more of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob's physical descendants are accepting Jesus as Lord and Savior. When the whole nation accepts that he is the promised Messiah, Jesus will come again to reign and to protect them.
* David could have went to Saul's house, his seat of reigning and taken over. He didn't. Instead he began looking for a new capital.
* A selfish man wouldn't be patient if he had the ability, military strength, and anointing that David had.
>2. How did David succeed in taking the stronghold Jerusalem, and why? (6-10)
* 2 Samuel 5:6-10 "The king and his men marched to Jerusalem to attack the Jebusites, who lived there. The Jebusites said to David, "You will not get in here; even the blind and the lame can ward you off." They thought, "David cannot get in here." Nevertheless, David captured the fortress of Zion, the City of David. On that day, David said, "Anyone who conquers the Jebusites will have to use the water shaft to reach those 'lame and blind' who are David's enemies." That is why they say, "The 'blind and lame' will not enter the palace." David then took up residence in the fortress and called it the City of David. He built up the area around it, from the supporting terraces inward. And he became more and more powerful, because the Lord God Almighty was with him."
* "The king and his men" -David did not require or request men from the tribes who had just proclaimed their loyalty to him.
* "Jerusalem" -Jerusalem is first mentioned in the Bible as "Salem" meaning "peace" in Genesis 14:18 and the home of Melchizedek, the priest of Most High God who blessed Abraham. Jerusalem was originally build on Mt. Zion. Later it extended to include Mt. Moriah where Abraham offered Isaac and where the Temple would eventually be built. In Joshua's time an Amorite king, Adoni-Zedek was king of Jerusalem. (Josh. 10:32) When Adoni-Zedek and four other Amorite kings fought against Israel, Joshua killed him (Josh. 10:36) Joshua 15:8 calls it a Jebusite city that marked the northern border of Judah and Joshua 15:63 says Judah could not capture the city. Joshua 18:28 says it is just within Benjamin's borders. After Joshua died Judah was able to take the city and burned it. (Judges 1:8) Shortly after the Jebusites reoccupied the city and the Benjamites lived there with them. (Josh. 1:21) Judges 19:10-12 calls it Jebus and non-Israelite town. The next time Scriptures mention Jerusalem is when David brought the head of Goliath through the city. (1 Sam. 17:54) Now in this chapter David and his men take the city in the name of the Lord and Israel. It will remain an active town in the hands of Israel until first the Egyptians and then the Assyrians captured it and finally the Babylonians capture it and burn it to the ground. (582 B.C.)
* "the City of David" -David remained the city or perhaps those who followed him.
* "lame and blind" -David was inspiring his men to prove that his enemies, the enemies of Israel were less than lame and blind.
* "use the water shaft" -"At Jerusalem two shafts began at the same opening into the hill, but one of them came to a sudden end, stopped by a stratum of very hard rock. Theother became, 'a stair-case down to a platform, which led into a horizontal semi-circular tunnel at a level about half-way down to the spring. At the end of the tunnel is another shaft going further down into the mountain. The bottom of this shaft ends in what was then a water-filled channel which leads to the spring Gihon... by lowering a bucket down the last shaft, the Jebusites could reach the water.'" (Tyndale Old Testament Commentary Series quoted H. Shanks, The City of David.) The rest of the account of the shaft to the spring in the Tyndale commentary is interesting too.
* "the supporting terraces" -"The Jebusite city walls were built on the slopes of the hill (Mt. Zion), which was particularly steep on the west side, hence the need to have secure buttresses resting on terraces, which would not slid (Even imperceptibly) downwards towards teh valley. Even within the city there was more levelling in order to make building possible. David evidently turned his attention to this substructure early in his occupation of Jerusalem." (Tyndale Old Testament Bible Commentary)
* "the Lord God Almighty" -"Lord" is "Yahweh" in Hebrew. "God" is "El" in Hebrew. "Almighty" is "Shaddai" in Hebrew.
* "the Lord God Almighty was with him" -The reason that David succeed was because the Lord was with him. David was within the Lord's will at this time and so the Lord used him to accomplish his will.
* See a picture to the right. After almost three thousand years of oblivion, and in the course of excavations which have often presented the archaeologists with considerable difficulties, these meager and insignificant-looking fragments of walls are all that have so far come to light from the time when David captured Jerusalem and his son Solomon built its temple. On the east side of the "city of David" lie side by side the remains of the Jebusite fortress and a square tower dating from Solomon's day-venerable mementoes of Jerusalem in the time of the monarchy. (The Bible as History in Pictures, Werner Keller)
>How important was it for Israel to have a capital city?
* Hebron was the center of Judah. David was now king of all Israel. Hebron was not central to Israel and other tribes would have considered themselves serving Judah.
* Israel needed a new capital to show not only a change in leadership, but a change in leadership style and objectives.
* None of the Israelite tribes could claim the city as their own because, for the most part, no tribe occupied the city though it was on the edge of Benjamin's territory with Judah. Therefore, all the tribes could say that it was indeed a capital of Israel. The twelve tribes (areas) of Israel could find unity in a city that none of them claimed and their king lived in.
* The new capital was important, but not easy to take. The Lord had told Israel before they entered the promised land, "But you are to seek the place the Lord your God will choose from among all your tribes to put his Name there for his dwelling. To that place you must go... you will cross the Jordan and settle in the land the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance, and he will give you rest from all your enemies around you so that you will live in safety. Then to the place the Lord your God will choose as a dwelling for his Name--there you are to bring everything I command you: your burnt offerings and sacrifices, your tithes and special gifts, and all the choice possessions you have vowed to the Lord. And there rejoice before the Lord your God, you, your sons and daughters, your menservants and maidservants, and the Levites from your towns, who have no allotment or inheritance of their own. Be careful not to sacrifice your burnt offerings anywhere you please. Offer them only at the place the Lord will choose in one of your tribes, and there observe everything I command you." (Deut. 12:5, 10-14)
II. David Inquired the Lord (5:11-25)
>3. What do David's alliance with Hiram and David's taking more concubines and wives tell us about the customs of the age? (11, 13-16)
* 2 Samuel 5:11 "Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, along with cedar logs and carpenters and stonemasons, and they built a palace for David."
* 2 Samuel 5:13-16 "After he left Hebron, David took more concubines and wives in Jerusalem, and more sons and daughters were born to him. These are the names of the children born to him there: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada and Eliphelet."
* The prophets did not rebuke David for either of these actions, though both caused trouble in the end.
* Having many wives in those days was a way to establish one's power and position. David was a man of his generation. However, in the end trouble came because of this. A leaders life should be simple so that he is not eventually threatened and hindered. Apostle Paul wrote, "I would like you to be free from concern. An unmarried man is concerned about the Lord's affairs--how he can please the Lord. But a married man is concerned about the affairs of this world--how he can please his wife-- and his interests are divided. An unmarried woman or virgin is concerned about the Lord's affairs: Her aim is to be devoted to the Lord in both body and spirit. But a married woman is concerned about the affairs of this world--how she can please her husband. I am saying this for your own good, not to restrict you, but that you may live in a right way in undivided devotion to the Lord. If anyone thinks he is acting improperly toward the virgin he is engaged to, and if she is getting along in years and he feels he ought to marry, he should do as he wants. He is not sinning. They should get married. But the man who has settled the matter in his own mind, who is under no compulsion but has control over his own will, and who has made up his mind not to marry the virgin--this man also does the right thing. So then, he who marries the virgin does right, but he who does not marry her does even better." (1 Cor. 7:32-38)
* Even though it was custom of the day, eventually all his wives and children weakened the kingdom he worked so hard to establish, instead of strengthening it as was the thought of the day.
* Joshua 13:4-5 states that Tyre (actually all of the land east of the Lebanon Mountain range to the Mediterranean Sea) was part of the land promised to Israel, but not conquered by Joshua. He told them to conquer it. By accepting wood and craftsman from Tyre David was assuring them that he would not attack them. David, though he gained promised land never before conquered, compromised in order to build a large palace for himself. We should be careful that we don't compromise when building our house.
* "Nathan, Solomon" -Solomon gained the through, though his mother's son Nathan (1 Chron. 3:5) is mentioned as the ancestor of Joseph. (Luke 3:31)
>Why was it important for David to know God's will upon himself and his kingdom? (12)
* 2 Samuel 5:12 "And David knew that the Lord had established him as king over Israel and had exalted his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel."
* "David knew" -No one needed to tell David. David, when anointed had the Holy Spirit come on him. The Holy Spirit told him in the same way he communicates to us today. Like David we should have a humble understanding of ourselves. Romans 12:3 states, "For by the grace given me I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the measure of faith God has given you."
* "the Lord had established him as king over Israel" -God had a purpose in establishing David's kingdom. The greatest purpose was to foreshadow the kingdom of God.
* "had exalted his kingdom" -David's kingdom was the greatest of all of Israel's kingdoms for it was closest to resembling what the Lord wanted in a kingdom. Solomon's was richer in worldly wealth; yet David's was closer to the Lord's will. Every person should examine their life and home to see if it is what the Lord considers as good or if it is what we consider as good.
* "for the sake of his people Israel" -Deuteronomy 17:20 "and not consider himself better than his brothers and turn from the law to the right or to the left. Then he and his descendants will reign a long time over his kingdom in Israel."
* If David didn't recognize that it was the Lord who did most of the work he would have become proud. God opposes the proud and exalts the humble. (James 4:6; 1 Peter 5:5)
* For the most part David remembered the Lord and walked in his ways, as was up to this time. When he strayed from the word and will of God he was undone.
* When a leader is exalted in a congregation in the end it is for the sake of the Lord and the church. Though like David some who are exalted are brought down.
>4. When the Philistines came to attack and kill David what did he do?
* 2 Samuel 5:17-19 "When the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over Israel, they went up in full force to search for him, but David heard about it and went down to the stronghold. Now the Philistines had come and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim; so David inquired of the Lord, "Shall I go and attack the Philistines? Will you hand them over to me?" The Lord answered him, "Go, for I will surely hand the Philistines over to you."
* Some say that this event happened before he made a compact with the king of Tyre. Most of the sons definitely were born after this event.
* "they went up in full force to search for him" -The Philistines not only saw David as a threat, but they might have felt betrayed. 1 Samuel 27:12 records that, "Achish trusted David and said to himself, 'He has become so odious to his people, the Israelites, that he will be my servant forever.'" (See 1 Sam. 23:9 too.)
* "went down to the stronghold" -That is Jerusalem.
* "the Valley of Rephaim" -A valley near and to the west of Jerusalem. The area was associated with a pre-Israelite tribe in Palestine, equivalent to the Anakim, the Moabite term Emim (Deut. 2:10-11), and the Ammonite term Zanzummim (2:20-21). Despite their reputation for might and height, the Rephaim were defeated by a coalition of eastern kings (Gen. 14:5) and were later displaced by the Israelites (Deut. 3:11,13; compare Gen. 15:20) and their distant kin, the Moabites (Deut. 2:10-11) and the Ammonites (2:20-21). The NIV avoids the translation giant completely, (as opposed to the KJV and RSV) using “Rephaim” when referring to the valley or land, “Rephaites” when referring to the pre-Israelite inhabitants, and descendant of Rapha” for individuals in 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles. The artificial distinction between Rephaites and descendant of Rapha apparently attempts to ease the tension between the designation of King Og of Bashan as the last of the Rephaim (Deut. 3:11; Josh. 12:4) and the mention of later descendants in 2 Samuel 21:16,18,20,22; and 1 Chronicles 20:6,8. The Israelites often used the term Rephaim to mean Sheol (the grave).
* "so David inquired of the Lord" -David still prayed concerning direction, especially when and when not to fight on the behalf of Israel. I don't know of any place that David ever inquired of the Lord concerning personal direction. Those, it can be assumed was left for personal prayers.
* "The Lord answered him" -If this event is chronically after David's compact with the king of Tyre then the Lord did not say anything was wrong with it. Perhaps as David was with the Philistines and now they were against him, then David's compact with the king of Tyre was considered temporary.
>Who did David credit for the victory?
* 2 Samuel 5:20-21 "So David went to Baal Perazim, and there he defeated them. He said, "As waters break out, the Lord has broken out against my enemies before me." So that place was called Baal Perazim. The Philistines abandoned their idols there, and David and his men carried them off."
* "Baal Perazim" -Place name meaning, “Lord of the breakthroughs or “Baal of the breaches.” (As mentioned earlier at this time "Baal" was sometimes interchanged with "Lord" in Israel's speech and later done away with because of the evil practices of Baal worship introduced into Israel.) The location is not known. It is probably identical with Mount Perazim (Isa. 28:21).
* "the Lord has broken out against my enemies" -Unlike Saul, David recognized and verbally honored God. David was often faced with new challenges. The book of Judges records that the Philistines were left to test and train Israel. So David was now tested and apparently passed the test because he called on the Lord and the Lord answered him.
* 1 Chron. 14:8-12 is an equivalent record.
>When they attached again what did David do and what was the result?
* 2 Samuel 5:22-25 "Once more the Philistines came up and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim; so David inquired of the Lord, and he answered, "Do not go straight up, but circle around behind them and attack them in front of the balsam trees. As soon as you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the balsam trees, move quickly, because that will mean the Lord has gone out in front of you to strike the Philistine army." So David did as the Lord commanded him, and he struck down the Philistines all the way from Gibeon to Gezer."
* "Once More the Philistines came" -The Philistines did not give up easily.
* "so David inquired of the Lord" -David prayed again.
* "Do not go straight up, but circle around behind them" - In obedience to the Lrod David used different strategies.
* "balsam trees" -Translation of two Hebrew words. Baka’ is translated as balsam trees in the modern versions (NAS, NIV, NRSV, and TEV). The KJV reads mulberry trees,” while REB has aspens.” Neither the balsam nor mulberry tree has been known to grow around Jerusalem, making the identification of the tree uncertain. Poplar and mastic tree have also been suggested as translations. Balsam is also a translation of balsam in the NAS, where other versions have spice and “spices” (Song of Sol. 5:1,13; 6:2). (Holman Bible Dictionary)
>What can we learn how battles are won?
* "as soon as" -The Lord likes working with his people. We are his children. Loving parents like playing and interacting with their children, especially when when they are young. The Lord always likes interacting with his children too.
* "the Lord has gone out in front of you to strike the Philistine army" -The Lord leads by taking the lead. He does not lag behind and let the "minions" do all the leg work. David also took the lead in the battles. Opposite this Saul sat back in his tent and palace and let others do the fighting for him. We too should go out an do what the Lord requires no matter the age, gender, social status, wealth, intelligence, education or whatever. Sometimes after a long life of faith or a life full of troubles and ruff battles we feel like letting someone else engage in the battles and someone else witness to people. A poor leader says, "Let the others do the leg work and I'll reap the benefits of their labor." A selfish leader says, "Let the young share the gospel and I'll steal the sheep because the young are not qualified like I am." Acts 20:29-30 states, "I know that after I leave, savage wolves will come in among you and will not spare the flock. Even from your own number men will arise and distort the truth in order to draw away disciples after them." Jesus said, "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. The hired hand is not the shepherd who owns the sheep. So when he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and runs away. Then the wolf attacks the flock and scatters it. The man runs away because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep." (John 10:11-13) Through the last thirty years the Lord has blessed me in many ways including sharing the gospel and teaching the word of God to many people, some for several years. The Lord was certainly kind to use me in this way. Some of my peer became very jealous since the Lord lead me to be shepherd of more than any of my peers. The jealous ones attacked and divided the sheep amongst them. So now I have lost touch with those I knew in the past. Most were scattered by wolves seeking their own gain. Yet though some called me a shepherd, it was the Lord Jesus who was and still is their shepherd. Yet, I cannot but feel sad about those who were scattered and I lost touch with. I will wait and see them again at the resurrection of the dead and learn of how the Lord Jesus continued to use them since I last meet them.
III. David Brings the Ark to Jerusalem (6:1-23)
>5. Describe the procession while the Ark was moved from Hebron to Jerusalem. (1-5)
* 2 Samuel 6:1-5 "David again brought together out of Israel chosen men, thirty thousand in all. He and all his men set out from Baalah of Judah to bring up from there the ark of God, which is called by the Name, the name of the Lord Almighty, who is enthroned between the cherubim that are on the ark. They set the ark of God on a new cart and brought it from the house of Abinadab, which was on the hill. Uzzah and Ahio, sons of Abinadab, were guiding the new cart with the ark of God on it, and Ahio was walking in front of it. David and the whole house of Israel were celebrating with all their might before the Lord, with songs and with harps, lyres, tambourines, sistrums and cymbals."
* "Baalah" -Joshua 15:9 says that Baalah was also called Kiriath Jerarim. It a city on the border and within Judah's allotment west of Jerusalem built on a mountain. (Josh. 15:11)
* "the ark of God" -The Lord instructed Moses to build an ark that was in the image of the throne of God in heaven. It was meant to serve as a meeting place and a remembrance of the covenant between the Lord and Israel. The ark was a chest; within it was the stone tablets containing the ten commandments of the covenant that the Lord wrote on at Mt. Sinai, a jar of manna that the Israelites ate in the desert, and Aaron's staff that had budded. (Exodus 25:10-22) The ark was to reside in the tabernacle behind a curtain that the Lord instructed Moses to have built. (Exodus 26:31-36)
* "which is called by the Name" -Having one's name on something shows ownership. (12:28; Deut. 28:10; Isa. 4:1) "the Name" is left blank in some of the original transcripts. Other manuscripts wrote the words "the Name" instead of the actual name that was in the original record. Scholars believe they copyists either left it blank or wrote "the Name" because the Jewish authors of those transcripts didn't consider themselves holy enough to right the name that was actually on the first record.
* "the name of the Lord Almighty" -"Lord" here is the covenant name "Yehwah" and "Almighty" means "hosts" as in "army of hosts". The ancient writers skipped the vowels (YHWH) because they didn't consider themselves worthy enough to write his full name.
* "who is enthroned between the cherubim that are on the ark" -
* "they set the ark of God on a new cart" -Numbers 3:31 and 7:6-9 state that the cart should be carried on poles that were to rest on the shoulders of the Levites. (See also Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15; and 1 Chron. 13:1-8, 15:1-13, 16:1-36.) If the priests and David would have paid attention to this detail they could have avoided the death that follows.
* "Uzzah and Ahio" -Eleazar, their brother, was entrusted with the ark, but is not mentioned here. (1 Sam. 7:1)
* "brought it from the house of Abinadab" -Sometime after the Israelites moved into the promised land the ark and the tabernacle were set up at Shiloh. (Josh. 18:1, 10, 19:51) Eventually the tabernacle was replaced by a structure referred to as the house of the Lord with a doorpost so it couldn't have been the tabernacle. (Judges 18:31; 1 Sam. 1:3, 9, 24, 3:3) During a battle with the Philistines the ark was brought to the battle and lost to the Philistines. (1 Sam. 4:1-11) At that time the building that had housed the ark was burned to the ground as was the rest of the Levitical town. After seven months in Philistine the ark was sent back to Israel and placed at the house of Abinadab at Kiriath Jerarim where it stayed until this event. (1 Sam. 6:1-7:1)
* The ark of the covenant (the ark of the testimony) was a symbol of the presence of the Lord with Israel. By bringing the ark of the Lord to the new capital David was telling all Israel that the Lord was his God.
>What can we learn about worship and praise? (Eph. 5:19-20, Col. 3:15-17)
* "celebrating with all their might before the Lord, with songs and with harps, lyres, tambourines, sistrums and cymbals"
* "celebrating" -Has the meaning of happy and joyful event.
* Ephesians 5:19-20 "Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ."
* Colossians 3:15-17 "Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, since as members of one body you were called to peace. And be thankful. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God. And whatever you do, whether in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him."
* Worshiping the Lord in song is a joyful and wonderful experience when anointed by the Holy Spirit. Today many congregations either don't participate at all in songs let alone "with all their might"; or they turn the worship with songs into entertainment. Entertainment is not bad when it is meant to be so. However, worship with song should not be replaced with entertainment.
>6. Why did Uzzah die? (6-7; 1 Sam. 6:19; Num. 4:15; 1 Chron. 15:15)
* 2 Samuel 6:6-7 "When they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah reached out and took hold of the ark of God, because the oxen stumbled. The Lord's anger burned against Uzzah because of his irreverent act; therefore God struck him down and he died there beside the ark of God.'
* 1 Samuel 6:19 "But God struck down some of the men of Beth Shemesh, putting seventy of them to death because they had looked into the ark of the Lord. The people mourned because of the heavy blow the Lord had dealt them,"
* Numbers 4:15 "After Aaron and his sons have finished covering the holy furnishings and all the holy articles, and when the camp is ready to move, the Kohathites are to come to do the carrying. But they must not touch the holy things or they will die. The Kohathites are to carry those things that are in the Tent of Meeting.'
* 1 Chronicles 15:15 "And the Levites carried the ark of God with the poles on their shoulders, as Moses had commanded in accordance with the word of the Lord."
* David was sincere. He had good spirit and a good ideal. However, he failed to learn from Scriptures the exact way the ark was to be moved. Through this the Lord taught David his holiness and the need to understand is ways clearly. Sometimes God allows righteous judgment to fall on his people to teach them. Similarly, the Lord Jesus instituted the Lord's Passover (supper) to remember him. However, the Corinthians were not celebrating it properly and were rebuked. (1 Cor. 11:17-34)
* David is said to write Psalms 15, 24 and 68 for the placing of the ark in the tabernacle.
>How did David respond and what did God teach? (8-11)
* 2 Samuel 6:8-11 "Then David was angry because the Lord's wrath had broken out against Uzzah, and to this day that place is called Perez Uzzah. David was afraid of the Lord that day and said, "How can the ark of the Lord ever come to me?" He was not willing to take the ark of the Lord to be with him in the City of David. Instead, he took it aside to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite. The ark of the Lord remained in the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite for three months, and the Lord blessed him and his entire household."
* "David was angry" -David had no right to be angry with the Lord. He was at fault for doing this wrong. Not only that but he now lost face before all of Israel. Up to this time all Israel came to understand that David was "a man after God's own heart". Now everyone it witnessed that David too can make not only small common mistake, but large ones, especially when it came to things of the Lord. David had presumed to much and now had unrighteous anger.
* "the Lord's wrath" -The Lord's wrath is often in regard to his righteous anger toward sinful behavior and his act of cleansing the one who committed the sinful act. Jesus was angry at the use of the temple to sell things for sacrifice and so cleared it out. The Lord's anger brought the flood and will bring the cleansing with fire.
* "afraid of the Lord" -When sinful men are revealed and exposed to the holiness of the Lord, the fear of God comes upon them. The fear of the Lord should lead us to a better and more refined worship and life of faith. David had a conscience of the Lord, but did initially it lead him to make a poor decision.
* "Gittite" -A Gittite is a citizen of Gath. Goliath was a Gittite.
>7. Why did David again decide to bring that ark to Jerusalem? (12)
* 2 Samuel 6:12 "Now King David was told, "The Lord has blessed the household of Obed-Edom and everything he has, because of the ark of God." So David went down and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-Edom to the City of David with rejoicing.'
* "The Lord has blessed" -David thought about what God was doing and yet did not taking the ark to be in the capital city with him. It was only when he heard that the Lord was blessing the owner of the land that the ark was on that David realized he was wrong and the Lord is good. So David realized that God is holy and should be respected and loves those who want him to be with them.
* Psalms 103:8-18 "The Lord is compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, abounding in love. He will not always accuse, nor will he harbored his anger forever; he does not treat us as our sins deserve or repay us according to our iniquities. For as high as the heavens are above the earth, so great is his love for those who fear him; as far as the east is from the west, so far has he removed our transgressions from us. As a father has compassion on his children, so the Lord has compassion on those who fear him; for he knows how we are formed, he remembers that we are dust. As for man, his days are like grass, he flourishes like a flower of the field; the wind blows over it and it is gone, and its place remembers it no more. But from everlasting to everlasting the Lord's love is with those who fear him, and his righteousness with their children's children-- with those who keep his covenant and remember to obey his precepts."
* "with rejoicing" -David and the Israelites were filled with joy as the first time. That part was not wrong.
>How much different was David in bring the ark this time? (13-15; and 1 Chron. 15:13)
* 2 Samuel 6:13-15 "When those who were carrying the ark of the Lord had taken six steps, he sacrificed a bull and a fattened calf. David, wearing a linen ephod, danced before the Lord with all his might, while he and the entire house of Israel brought up the ark of the Lord with shouts and the sound of trumpets."
* 1 Chronicles 15:13 "It was because you, the Levites, did not bring it up the first time that the Lord our God broke out in anger against us. We did not inquire of him about how to do it in the prescribed way."
* "he sacrificed a bull and a fattened calf" -David added this to atone for his error and to please the Lord. David probably only provided the animals and the Levites were the ones who actually sacrificed.
* "wearing a linen ephod" -The linen ephod was the common garment of a priest. As the king of a nation of priests David (and all Israel) could wear one. The Scriptures do not say that only priests were to wear a linen ephod.
* "danced before the Lord with all his might" -The phrase implies a whirling action.
* "with shouts" -Loud voices and cries.
* "sound of trumpets" -The shophar is made from a ram's horn symbolizing power and might. Blowing rams' horns to symbolize the Lord's coming to Jerusalem is fitting. This will happen again before Jesus' second coming.
* David wanted to participate in the worship, not observe it.
>What can we learn about worship and praise? (Heb. 12:28-29)
* Hebrews 12:28-29 "Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe, for our 'God is a consuming fire.'"
* "Jesus declared, 'Believe me, woman, a time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. You Samaritans worship what you do not know; we worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews. Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshippers the Father seeks. God is spirit, and his worshippers must worship in spirit and in truth.'" (John 4:21-24)
* Romans 11:22 "Consider therefore the kindness and sternness of God: sternness to those who fell, but kindness to you, provided that you continue in his kindness. Otherwise, you also will be cut off."
>Reviewing the conclusion consider the cost to David? (18-19)
* 2 Samuel 6:18-19 "After he had finished sacrificing the burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord Almighty. Then he gave a loaf of bread, a cake of dates and a cake of raisins to each person in the whole crowd of Israelites, both men and women. And all the people went to their homes."
* A leader who gives to the people is rare. Most leaders collect offerings and taxes from people and use it for themselves, putting it in secret bank accounts. The worst leaders will then give from their vast fortunes a small portion to those who are loyal to them.
>8. What was the real reason for Michal's contempt for David? (16)
* 2 Samuel 6:16 "As the ark of the Lord was entering the City of David, Michal daughter of Saul watched from a window. And when she saw King David leaping and dancing before the Lord, she despised him in her heart."
* She considered a king to be someone set apart from the common people and regal. She considered dignity more important to religious devotion. Her idea of a king came from the other nations around them.
* She pretended to believe in God on the outside, not the inside.
* She despised David because of who he was.
* Psalms 11:2 "For look, the wicked bend their bows; they set their arrows against the strings to shoot from the shadows at the upright in heart."
>What was her pretended reason? (20)
* 2 Samuel 6:20 "When David returned home to bless his household, Michal daughter of Saul came out to meet him and said, 'How the king of Israel has distinguished himself today, disrobing in the sight of the slave girls of his servants as any vulgar fellow would!'"
* "came out to meet him" -She did not participate in the bringing of the ark to Jerusalem.
* Even one word spoken by her showed her heart.
* "vulgar fellow" -Her view of the common man is very similar to most people's view of others today. The fact that she considered her husband and the king a vulgar man was even worse. There is no love in the heart of someone who thinks this way.
>What was the outcome? (23)
* 2 Samuel 6:23 "And Michal daughter of Saul had no children to the day of her death."
* She was working against God's will just as her father had. She therefore would not be blessed just as he father had not been blessed.
>9. Why was it that David behaved as he did on this occasion? (17)
* 2 Samuel 6:17 "They brought the ark of the Lord and set it in its place inside the tent that David had pitched for it, and David sacrificed burnt offerings and fellowship offerings before the Lord."
* "inside the tent that David had pitched for it" -David made a new tent. The tabernacle remained at Gideon. (1 Chron. 16:39) Why David didn't bring the tabernacle to Jerusalem may be a hidden desire to build a more permanent structure as was in Shiloh. Solomon brought the tabernacle to Jerusalem after the temple was built. (1 Kings 8:4)
* "sacrificed burnt offerings and fellowship offerings" -David wanted to have proper fellowship with the Lord. (Lev. 7)
>10. Why did David treat Michal in such a severe way? (21-22)
* 2 Samuel 6:21-22 "David said to Michal, "It was before the Lord, who chose me rather than your father or anyone from his house when he appointed me ruler over the Lord's people Israel--I will celebrate before the Lord. I will become even more undignified than this, and I will be humiliated in my own eyes. But by these slave girls you spoke of, I will be held in honor."
* "chose me rather then your father or anyone from his house" -David's words to her reveals not only what he truly believed of Saul, but also how he felt toward Saul. David sang praises of Saul in public, but in his house he stated more.
* He realized that he could not change her.
* David did not want her influence to be on his offspring.
* Proverbs 11:2 "When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom."
* Proverbs 16:18 "Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall."
* Proverbs 13:10 "Pride only breeds quarrels, but wisdom is found in those who take advice."
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