John 18:1-19:16a Comments by Stephen Ricker
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Jesus Drinks the Cup of Sorrow
Comments for Study 23

John 18:1-19:16a
Key verse: 11

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Passion Week Events

* An outline of Jesus' last week before his resurrection is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area.
    Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
    Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
    Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
    Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as their King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
    Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
    Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
    Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
    Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven.
    Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
    A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
    Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)

* The Passover is linked to the 14th day of the month not the day of the week. It starting on Thursday twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go through the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Wave Sheaf, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.

I. Jesus Was Arrested (18:1-11)

>1. Where did Jesus and his disciples go after Jesus finished praying the high priestly prayer?

* "When he had finished praying, Jesus left with his disciples and crossed the Kidron Valley. On the other side there was an olive grove, and he and his disciples went into it." -John 18:1

* Jesus, his apostles, and some disciples had been in the upper room eating "The Last Supper". (chapters 13-17) The Last Supper was actually the Passover meal which Jesus transformed by instituting what churches call communion.

* Jesus' prayer was the closing of the last supper.

* Mark John probably joined them at this time. It might have been his mother's house. (Mk. 14:51-52)

* It was night and dark. (13:30) However, the Passover is observed on a full moon, on the 15th of the Hebrew month (Abib). Hebrew months start go from new moon to new moon, having 29 or 30 days. Thus Passover is always the 15th and a full moon.

* "the Kidron Valley" -The Kidron Valley had a small brook running in it. The Kidron Valley was lower than Jerusalem. It is said that every year at the Passover so many lambs were killed in Jerusalem that a small river of blood would flow into the Kidron Valley and join the brook at the bottom. Perhaps, Jesus saw this blood river as he walked through the valley.

* Kidron means black.

* When King David was leaving Jerusalem because his son stole the throne and he was forced out, he passed over this brook. (2 Sam. 15:23, 30)

* One the other side of the Kidron Valley was the Mount of Olives, named after the olive grove there.

* Olives grow on small trees.

* Jesus did not own this garden, but someone let him use it.

>What did they do there? (Matt. 26:38-39)

* "Then he said to them, 'My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death. Stay here and keep watch with me.' Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, 'My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.'" -Matthew 26:38-39

* Jesus prayed for strength to do God's will.

* The Mount of Olives was a quiet place outside the noisy city. It was a good place to cry out in prayer.

* A regular quiet place of prayer is good.

* Jesus first prayed with and for the disciples in the upper room. Now he would pray by himself for facing the trials and tribulation ahead.

* His upper room prayer was wonderful. His Mount of Olives prayer was sorrowful to the point of death. He prayed some more and some more. He didn't stop until he was arrested.

* Jesus went there knowing Judas would know the place. Jesus and his disciples had been in Jerusalem for around a week. They spend the night their several nights.

>2. Read verses 2-11.

* "Now Judas, who betrayed him, knew the place, because Jesus had often met there with his disciples. So Judas came to the grove, guiding a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees. They were carrying torches, lanterns and weapons. Jesus, knowing all that was going to happen to him, went out and asked them, "Who is it you want?" "Jesus of Nazareth," they replied. "I am he," Jesus said. (And Judas the traitor was standing there with them.) When Jesus said, "I am he," they drew back and fell to the ground. Again he asked them, "Who is it you want?" And they said, "Jesus of Nazareth." "I told you that I am he," Jesus answered. "If you are looking for me, then let these men go." This happened so that the words he had spoken would be fulfilled: "I have not lost one of those you gave me." Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's servant, cutting off his right ear. (The servant's name was Malchus.) Jesus commanded Peter, "Put your sword away! Shall I not drink the cup the Father has given me?" -John 18:2-11

>Who came to arrest Jesus?

* "Judas, who betrayed him" -Judas lead. He had made plans to arrest Jesus after the Passover because of the crowds. However during the Last Supper Judas realized that their plans to arrest him had been exposed. So they arrested him now ahead of time, while they still knew where he was at.

* "a detachment of soldiers" -A detachment of soldiers had at least 500 men and up to 1000. They were probably either Roman, Hittite, or Herodian soldiers; or a combination there of. In order for the Jews to get the Roman soldiers to help they needed to ask Pilate.

* Some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees.

* The crowd was like a mob.

* Jews and Romans hated each other and so seldom did things together, but it appears they may have worked together in this case.

* Jesus himself was unarmed but his disciples had two swords. (Luke 22:26-28)

* Jesus was one person with a few disciples, probably no more that 12, but the crowd was big.

>What part did Judas play?

* He signalled which one was Jesus.

* Jesus looked like a common person. He did not stand out. He did not have rich clothes. He wore no leader or soldier clothes. He did not present himself as a captain in charge of a lot of soldiers, nor a politician, nor a priest.

>What shows that Jesus was in control of the situation? (4-6)

* "Jesus, knowing all that was going to happen to him, went out and asked them, "Who is it you want?" "Jesus of Nazareth," they replied. "I am he," Jesus said. (And Judas the traitor was standing there with them.) When Jesus said, "I am he," they drew back and fell to the ground." -John 18:4-6

* Jesus knew what was going to happen. In fact he told his disciples what would happen many times. Jesus said in the last supper, "The time has come." (17:1)

* Jesus took the initiative and went out to meet them. He was reacting. He was acting.

>How did the mob respond to Jesus?

* "When Jesus said, 'I am he,' they drew back and fell to the ground." -John 18:6

* Verse 6 said that they "drew back and fell to the ground." Why? Because of Jesus' authority and control in the situation. He went out to meet them like nothing was wrong, and he told them who he was, handing himself over without a fight.

* Jesus had a clear identity of who he was and confessed it openly "even though it meant his life.

* To the Jews the statement "I am." was significant because this is what God said his name was. (Ex. 3:14; In. 8:24, 28, 58; 13:19) See John study 11 comments.

* Jesus' voice commanded authority.

* "And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow with the breath of his mouth." (2 Thes. 2:8) "The rest of them were killed with the sword that came out of the mouth ... " (Rev 19:21) "What will he do when he shall come to judge, seeing he did this when he came to be judged?" -Augustine.

* If Jesus would have spoken a few more words they would have died.

>What does this show about Jesus?

* His authority and power.

* Jesus was prepared for this. He willingly laid down his life. He did not want to harm anyone in the process of his doing the work that God had given him.

* "'The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor.'" (Luke 4:18-19; Isaiah 61:1-2)

* "'Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali, the way to the sea, along the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles--the people living in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned.'" (Matt. 4:15-16, Isaiah 9:1-2)

* Jesus is the one who brings the good news.

* Jesus is the light to all peoples.

* Jesus is the judge of all mankind.

>3. What was Jesus' first concern in this time of crisis? (8; 17:11)

* "'I told you that I am he,' he answered. 'If you are looking for me, then let these men go.' This happened so that the words he had spoken would be fulfilled: 'I have not lost one of those you gave me.'" -John 18:8-9

* "'I will remain in the world no longer, but they are still in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them by the power of your name-the name you gav me-so that they may be one as were are one.'" -John 17:11

* Although Jesus had told his disciples to take up their cross; he did not want them to suffer when they were not ready for it, nor when it wasn't necessary.

* Jesus protects us from unnecessary suffering, but not necessarily all suffering.

* Jesus prayed and also when he had seen that God opened the door, Jesus acted. It is good to pray and to act when God opens the door.

* If some or all of the disciples would have been called to suffer, the weaker, if not all of them would have fallen away. But through Jesus intercession none of the disciples were lost.

* This is a good example how Jesus is the mediator.

* As our leader, Jesus had to fight the fight first and foremost. The disciples would follow his example later.

* We can not expect others to carry a cross that they were not meant to carry or that their leaders are meant to carry.

* In the kingdom of God, the leaders, the strong do the work and the weaker do less or no work. This is opposite of today's world.

>Why did he surrender to his arresters so easily? (9, 11)

* "Jesus commanded Peter, 'Put your sword away! Shall I not drink the cup the Father has given me?'" -John 18:11

* "'Put your sword back in its place,' Jesus said to him, 'for all who draw the sword will die by the sword. Do you think I cannot call on my Father, and he will at once put at my disposal more than twelve legions of angels? But how then would the Scriptures be fulfilled that say it must happen in this way?' At that time Jesus said to the crowd, 'Am I leading a rebellion, that you have come out with swords and clubs to capture me? Every day I sat in the temple courts teaching, and you did not arrest me. But this has all taken place that the writings of the prophets might be fulfilled.' Then all the disciples deserted him and fled." (Matt. 26:52-56)

* This shows Jesus' willingness to die. He laid down his life, no one took it from him.

* Jesus wasn't self centered, but God centered.

* Jesus wasn't controlled by fear of death nor fear of men.

* Jesus' cup is his suffering and death. What is our cup?

* It was not God's will to start a rebellion. Jesus did God's work in God's way.

* Jesus wasn't helplessly arrested.

>What did Peter do?

* "Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it and struck the high priest's servant, cutting off his right ear. (The servant's name was Malchus.)" -John 18:10

* Peter had been rebuked several times before on this day. Once when Jesus was washing the disciples feet. Another time he was told that he would denied Jesus three times. Three times he was told to pray. Twice he was rebuked for sleeping instead of praying.

* Peter wanted to prove that he would lay down his life for Jesus by doing this.

* Peter was a man of passion and valor. These can be good, but if one has them without God they will cause us to do useless things.

* Peter should have prayed as Jesus asked him too.

* Peter was actually acting against Jesus words for Jesus just said, "Let these men go."

* Cutting a ear off someone isn't easy. Peter was a fisherman. He was no soldier. He probably had little experience with a sword. So this was probably a lucky hit. Perhaps he wanted to cut off his head.

>What does this show about him?

* He did not understand what Jesus was saying.

* He did not know God's will for Jesus.

* He had not prayed as Jesus told him to.

* He was unprepared because of lack of prayer.

* He had a strong self determined will.

* He loved Jesus.

* He was to proud to accept.

* Peter was bold before men when Jesus was around and in control, but later he was not so bold. This is because Peter did not know what was going on for he did not listen to what Jesus had said.

* Peter digressed after this. He was confident at first, but disgraced as time went on.

* Peter had group faith. When others were around he acted like a disciples of Jesus. But when no one was around he melted in with the crowd. Jesus on the other hand was constant.

>What does Jesus mean by "the cup the Father has given me"?

* This was his suffering and crucifixion.

* Father gave it to him.

II. Jesus Was Tried (12-40)

>4. Where was Jesus taken?

* "Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the Jewish officials arrested Jesus. They bound him and brought him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year." -John 18:12-13

* In order: Annas, Caiaphas, some of the Sanhedrin, the Roman governor, Herod, and then the Roman governor again.

>How did the writer identify the legal high priest?

* "...Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year. Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jews that it would be good if one man died for the people." -John 18:13b-14

* "during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John son of Zechariah in the desert." (Luke 3:2)

* "The next day the rulers, elders and teachers of the law met in Jerusalem. Annas the high priest was there, and so were Caiaphas, John, Alexander and the other men of the high priest's family." (Acts 4:5-6)

* "Then one of them, named Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, spoke up, 'You know nothing at all! You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish.'" (John 11:49-50)

* It was corrupt, not following the law of God set forth in the first five books of the Bible.

* There was two high priests. (19, 22, 24) This was unlawful. Annas was the father in law and Caiaphas. Annas was the first and true high priest. However, he had a political problem with the Romans. So the Romans removed him as high priest. His son in law was then made the high priest in his place. Family ties were used to get seats of authority. (13-14, Acts 3)

* The arrest was done because they had made up their minds to kill Jesus. (John 11:49-50)

>How did Peter get into the courtyard of the high priest?

* "Simon Peter and another disciples were following Jesus. Because this disciple was known to the high priest, he went with Jesus into the high priest's courtyard, but Peter had to wait outside at the door. The other disciple, who was known to the high priest, came back, spoke to the girl on duty there and brought Peter in." -John 18:15-16

* He loved Jesus but did not know what to do. He was like a ship without a rudder.

>What was his unplanned response to the girl's question?

* "'You are not one of his disciples, are you?' the girl at the door asked Peter. He replied, 'I am not.'" -John 18:17

* Jesus and Peter are in sharp contrast.

* He was not ready to die for what was appearing to be a vain lost cause.

* He never intended to do this, but this is what he did.

* He was ashamed of Jesus.

* John apparently was the only other apostle there. The rest must have went back to the upper room and hide.

>What did he do after that?

* "It was cold, and the servants and officials stood around a fire they had made to keep warm. Peter also was standing with them, warming himself." -John 18:18

>Why did he speak and act this way?

* He feared for his life.

* Most will not take us their cross without understanding why and without faith, hope, and love. Peter could have these if he had listened to Jesus.

>5. What did the high priest question Jesus about?

* "Meanwhile, the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching." -John 18:19

* No witness on Jesus' behalf were brought foreword. The law required a thorough investigation.

* It was against the law to strike a prisoner.

* The high priest tore his robe which was illegal. This act made him disqualified to be the high priest for the Passover. So that year there was no Levite to be the high priest. Jesus took his place as hight priest in the order of Melchizedek.

* The Passover had started when the night fall, so it was now the Passover, a legal holiday. They should have been preparing themselves for the work ahead.

* They tried to expose Jesus' wrong actions and words. However, they couldn't find any. They became restrained by the law of God. So they broke the law. so instead of Jesus' wrong acts being exposed, their wrong acts were exposed.

* Jesus testified about himself before friends and enemies.

* The reason he asked about Jesus' disciples was because they wanted them arrested too.

* The reason he asked about Jesus' teaching was so that they could find something that agreed with their conclusions about him.

>How did Jesus answer?

* "'I have spoken openly to the world,' Jesus replied. 'I always taught in synagogues or at the temple, where all the Jews come together. I said nothing in secret. Why question me? Ask those who heard me. Surely they know what I said.'" -John 20-21

* Jesus rebuked him.

* This trial was in secret. Jesus never taught in secret. Jesus had nothing to hide. They had everything to hide.

* Jesus didn't defend himself. Jesus did not expose his disciples, some of whom were in the courtyard.

* When it says that Jesus didn't open his mouth it means to the false accusations.

>Why was he so angry at Jesus' answer?

* Jesus exposed their sin.

>Who struck Jesus and how did Jesus respond? (See Mt. 26:57-68, 27:1-2 for details of the Sanhedrin trial.)

* "When Jesus said this, one of the officials nearby struck him in the face. 'Is this the way you answer the high priest?' he demanded." -John 18:22

* "Those who had arrested Jesus took him to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the teachers of the law and the elders had assembled. But Peter followed him at a distance, right up to the courtyard of the high priest. He entered and sat down with the guards to see the outcome. The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death. But they did not find any, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally two came forward and declared, "This fellow said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.'" Then the high priest stood up and said to Jesus, "Are you not going to answer? What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you?" But Jesus remained silent. The high priest said to him, "I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God." "Yes, it is as you say," Jesus replied. "But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Look, now you have heard the blasphemy. What do you think?" "He is worthy of death," they answered. Then they spit in his face and struck him with their fists. Others slapped him and said, "Prophesy to us, Christ. Who hit you?" -Matthew 26:57-68

* "Early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people came to the decision to put Jesus to death. They bound him, led him away and handed him over to Pilate, the governor." -Matthew 27:1-2

* They thought it was wrong to answer the high priest in the way that he did. They thought that he wasn't being respectful to an elder. However, all Jesus did was speak the truth.

* They were frustrated and tired because they found no evidence for Jesus' arrest. They had not answer to Jesus' words.

* The guard was eager to show his loyalty to the high priest.

* This trial must have lasted several hours.

>What can you learn about Jesus here?

* "'If I said something wrong,' Jesus replied, 'testify as to what is wrong, But if I spoke the truth, why did you strike me?' Then Annas sent him, still bound to Caiaphas the high priest." -John 18:23-24

* Don't lie.

* Tell truth.

* Know when to speak and when to answer.

* To remain calm.

* To understand the world of God.

>6. In the meantime, what was Simon Peter doing?

* "As Simon Peter stood warming himself..." -John 18:25a

>What happened to him? (25-27)

* "As Simon Peter stood warming himself, he was asked, "You are not one of his disciples, are you?" He denied it, saying, "I am not." One of the high priest's servants, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, challenged him, "Didn't I see you with him in the olive grove?" Again Peter denied it, and at that moment a rooster began to crow." -John 18:25-27

* Now was the time of decision for Peter.

>What did he fear?

* His life and health.

>Why was he so weak?

* He had not prayed.

* Nor did he listen to Jesus' words.

>Read about the trial before Pilate. (28-40)

* "Then the Jews led Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. By now it was early morning, and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness the Jews did not enter the palace; they wanted to be able to eat the Passover. So Pilate came out to them and asked, "What charges are you bringing against this man?" "If he were not a criminal," they replied, "we would not have handed him over to you." Pilate said, "Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law." "But we have no right to execute anyone," the Jews objected. This happened so that the words Jesus had spoken indicating the kind of death he was going to die would be fulfilled. Pilate then went back inside the palace, summoned Jesus and asked him, "Are you the king of the Jews?" "Is that your own idea," Jesus asked, "or did others talk to you about me?" "Am I a Jew?" Pilate replied. "It was your people and your chief priests who handed you over to me. What is it you have done?" Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." "You are a king, then!" said Pilate. Jesus answered, "You are right in saying I am a king. In fact, for this reason I was born, and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me." "What is truth?" Pilate asked. With this he went out again to the Jews and said, "I find no basis for a charge against him. But it is your custom for me to release to you one prisoner at the time of the Passover. Do you want me to release 'the king of the Jews'?" They shouted back, "No, not him! Give us Barabbas!" Now Barabbas had taken part in a rebellion." -John 18:28-40

>Why did the Jews hand Jesus over to Pilate?

* They wanted Jesus dead.

* But there was a problem. Much of the people liked Jesus. It was a common fact that the Jews did not like Jesus and both of them had different points of view. So if they would have put Jesus to death the people would have disliked them very much. If the people did not dislike them one thing is sure the Jewish leaders was fearful that their credibility would be harmed if they were responsible for popular Jesus' death.

* Some say that it was because they had no authority to kill people under Roman law as they themselves said in verse 31. But the fact is they did not like the Romans and often broke the Roman law. Pilate of course often looked the other way because he didn't want to much trouble. A good example is the Jews stoning of Stephen. Roman law did not stop them there.

* Jesus was a controversial and popular person up till now.

* The Jews wanted to escape being the one who was blamed for killing Jesus.

* They Jews wanted the gentiles to help them reach their goals, but did not want to be associated with them. In fact they sought help from their enemies.

* The law forbid the Jews from going into a gentiles home. They were obedient about his, but not about the rest of the law for most of this trial. Not going in was an outward show of false pious.

>How did this fulfill the words Jesus had spoken? (3:14)

* "Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up," -John 3:14

* Many times Jesus predicted his death to the tea. Many times the Old Testament predicts Jesus' death to the tea. The fact that every one of Jesus' predictions came true is a testimony to his Messiahship and that he is the truth.

* Note the fact that the Jews normal way of execution was stoning because of the Old Testament. Only the Roman crucified anyone. The Jews would have never done this. Nor is it recorded that they ever did. But Jesus, way back in Galilee when his ministry was small predicted his crucifixion, such as in 3:14.

>Why was Pilate not happy to have Jesus brought to him?

* "Then the Jews led Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. By now it was early morning, and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness the Jews did not enter the palace; they wanted to be able to eat the Passover. So Pilate came out to them and asked, "What charges are you bringing against this man?" "If he were not a criminal," they replied, "we would not have handed him over to you." Pilate said, "Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law." "But we have no right to execute anyone," the Jews objected." -John 18:28-31

* This conversation reveals a lot about Pilate attitude when first approached with this trial.

* "By now it was early morning" -the sun was just rising. Pilate was just getting up.

* "and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness" -clean by the the letter of the law not by the spirit of the law.

* "the Jews did not enter the palace" -Pilate was probably a little annoyed by this for he was the governor.

* "they wanted to be able to eat the Passover" -just because we go to and do righteous things does not mean we are righteous.

* "So Pilate came out to them" -he did not want them to become mad. He was a typical politician at this time. In fact he did not want to displease the leaders, people, nor Caesar. Judea was not easy for anyone to rule. (Pilate was not the first.) Nor does history say he had improved the situation.

* "'What charges are you bringing against this man?" -Pilate did not know what was going on at this point. He probably knew a little of Jesus because of the triumphal entry and the crowds that he gathered. He probably didn't think that Jesus was much of a threat. People like Barabbas was more on his mind. (In fact he normally lived along the Mediterranean Sea, but came to Jerusalem during the big feasts.) Basically Pilate was more suspicious of the Jewish leaders saying, "Now what are they up to?"

* It was very early in the morning. Pilate was just getting up to a busy day controlling the masses of Jews there to celebrate the Passover.

>8. What charge had been brought against Jesus?

* "If he were not a criminal...we would not have handed him over to you." -This was there first reason.

* "Take him yourselves" -He was saying, "This is a joke, right?" Pilate wasn't concerned much with this case. He did not want to get involved.

* "and judge him by your own law" -Pilate probably realized that they were bringing him because of religious matters. Or at least he was commenting to the fact that they always judged people according to their law and carried out the sentence.

* "But we have not right to execute anyone" -There was only two laws that the Romans would execute anyone; treason and insurrection. Pilate then realized what charges they were bringing against Jesus. One thing for sure he knew the the Jewish leaders wanted him to do for him. Maybe at this time he did not know why they wanted to kill him, but he did know they wanted to. They charge was then officially, claiming to be king of the Jews. (John 18:33-34)

* They knew that Pilate could not get out of this charge. Claiming to be a king was a major threat to Rome, especially in rebellious Judea.

>What did Pilate ask him?

* "Pilate then went back inside the palace, summoned Jesus and asked him, 'Are you the king of the Jews?'" -John 18:32

* Paraphrased, "Are you really leading rebellion against Rome?"

* Pilate probably expected a, "No." Then, he felt that he could release Jesus and be done with the matter.

* "went back inside the palace" -He wanted a private one to one talk to Jesus.

>How did Jesus respond?

* "'Is that your own idea.' Jesus asked, 'or did others talk to you about me?'" -John 18:34

* At this point it can easily be seen that Jesus is in control of the situation.

* Pilate had little control of the situation.

* Jesus did not answer Pilate's question at first, later he did in verse 36.

* Jesus dealt with Pilate on a 1 to 1 basis as a human being.

* Paraphrased Jesus was saying, "Evaluate the situation and make your own decision."

* Jesus was probing Pilate so Pilate would think about the matter before him clearly and understand it fully.

* Once Pilate would know everything he would be accountable for his actions.

* In this question Jesus wanted Pilate to know and admit that it was the Jewish leaders who were interested in this case, and not himself.

* In this way Pilate himself would be accountable.

* "Am I a Jew?" -Pilate's frustration. He knew this case was rather strange. He didn't know what was going on at this point, but he was slowing being to see.

* "It was your people and your chief priests who handed you over to me." -Pilate admitted that he did not initiate the situation.

* "What is it you have do?" -Pilate wanted Jesus to give a firm answer so the matter would be settled.

>When Pilate admitted Jesus' trial was not his idea, what did Jesus teach him about his kingdom?

* "Jesus answered, 'My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place.'" -John 18:36

* Jesus did answer Pilate clearly.

* Jesus explained everything to Pilate.

* Pilate is guilty of allowing an innocent man die. Pilate could have stopped this.

* Jesus could have done something to be killed right there. He did not.

* Jesus did not stop from talking to him. Jesus did not beg for his life. Jesus did not cry. Jesus did not complain. Jesus just taught the truth so Pilate could make a good decision.

>What does it mean?

* "My kingdom is not of this world." -Jesus is a King. He admits his kingship. He is the King of all creation. Pilate did not need to fear Jesus' kingship.

* "My servants would fight to prevent my arrest" -Jesus shows Pilate that he is not leading a rebellion. If Jesus would be then all of Jerusalem would be in an uproar.

* Jesus' kingdom is not like worldly kingdoms. Jesus' kingdom is based on truth, love, and mercy. The kingdoms of the world is based on politics, selfishness, and "the best man wins".

* "But now" -not that Jesus' Kingship has just started. In those days this was used to strongly and absolutely stress a point. Often Jesus said, "Truly Truly" as well.

* "my kingdom is from another place" -Jesus kingdom is in heaven and the heart of all those who believe. That is where Jesus rules.

* Pilate knew that Jesus wasn't a threat after questioning him.

* When Jesus was arrested, perhaps with Roman soldiers present, Jesus did not struggle. There was no fight. The only person hurt was healed.

* Jesus knew what was right and stood up for it.

* Jesus believed in the power of the truth.

* Jesus is his trial before Pilate is amazing.

* Jesus admitted he was the Son of God.

* Jesus pointed out Pilate's sin.

* Pilate is responsible for his own error here.

>9. What opportunity did Jesus give Pilate to stand on the side of God and truth?

* "'You are a king, then!' said Pilate. Jesus answered, 'You are right in saying I am a king. In fact, for this reason I was born, and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me.'" -John 18:37

* This is an indirect invitation to Pilate.

* Jesus taught the truth to Pilate again.

* Jesus gave ample fact for Pilate to make a correct decision again.

* Jesus is in total control here.

>What did Pilate really think of Jesus, and how did he attempt to release him?

* "What is truth?" Pilate asked. With this he went out again to the Jews and said, "I find no basis for a charge against him. But it is your custom for me to release to you one prisoner at the time of the Passover. Do you want me to release 'the king of the Jews'?" -John 18:38-39

* Pilate knew that Jesus was no threat to Rome or him. He knew why the high priests handed him over and why they wanted him killed.

* This is were Pilate finally went wrong. He rejected Jesus and to do the moral thing to get political gain.

* He tried to portray that he was a good governor who worked for the good of the people. But in the end he is like most people and politicians, only in it for themselves at the cost of others, even the weak and innocent.

* Jesus had violated not civil law. Pilate should have released Jesus and even given him protection.

>Why did he ask, "What is truth?"

* Pilate did not expect an answer. His retort was a cry of frustration. Romans did not believe in universal truths.

* James 2:26

* Pilate was feed of with the situation. His hatred for the Jews is seen here.

III. Jesus was Arrested to be Crucified (19:1-16a)

>10. Why and how did Pilate mock Jesus' kingship and have him flogged?

* "Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged. The soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head. They clothed him in a purple robe and went up to him again and again, saying, "Hail, king of the Jews!" And they struck him in the face." -John 19:1-3

* Flogging is a preparation for crucifixion. It breaks the will of the prisoner. Pilate thought that if he did this the crowd would have sympathy for Jesus because he thought they loved Jesus. His miscalculation was that they did not love Jesus, they only loved the idea to be saved from Roman's oppression.

* By flogging Jesus, Pilate was telling the people that he would be crucified if they didn't request him. Pilate's plan backfired.

>What shows his compromising spirit?

* "Once more Pilate came out and said to the Jews, "Look, I am bringing him out to you to let you know that I find no basis for a charge against him." When Jesus came out wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe, Pilate said to them, "Here is the man!' As soon as the chief priests and their officials saws him, they shouted, 'Crucify! Crucify!' But Pilate answered, 'You take him and crucify him. As for me, I find no basis for a charge against him.'" -John 19:4-6

* Pilate was saying he knew Jesus was innocent and he didn't want to kill him.

* He had a high opinion of Jesus and perhaps wondered if he was a man from God for the Jews told him that Jesus claimed to be the Son of God. (Matt. 27:14)

>Why is he ultimately responsible for Jesus' death?

* "The Jews insisted, "We have a law, and according to that law he must die, because he claimed to be the Son of God." When Pilate heard this, he was even more afraid, and he went back inside the palace. "Where do you come from?" he asked Jesus, but Jesus gave him no answer. "Do you refuse to speak to me?" Pilate said. "Don't you realize I have power either to free you or to crucify you?" Jesus answered, "You would have no power over me if it were not given to you from above. Therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin." -John 19:7-11

* He had the power to release Jesus.

* He did not have to flog Jesus.

* His ignorance of those he ruled over is not excuse because his one to one interview with Jesus was all he needed to have to do the right thing.

>11. How did the words and actions of the Jewish leaders show the corruption in their hearts?

* "From then on, Pilate tried to set Jesus free, but the Jews kept shouting, "If you let this man go, you are no friend of Caesar. Anyone who claims to be a king opposes Caesar." When Pilate heard this, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judge's seat at a place known as the Stone Pavement (which in Aramaic is Gabbatha). It was the day of Preparation of Passover Week, about the sixth hour. "Here is your king," Pilate said to the Jews. But they shouted, "Take him away! Take him away! Crucify him!" "Shall I crucify your king?" Pilate asked. "We have no king but Caesar," the chief priests answered. Finally Pilate handed him over to them to be crucified." -John 19:12-16a

* "Therefore" -is a link not a statement of a coming conclusion to an point.

* Jesus is teaching to have reverence for God.

* "greater" -Pilate is still guilty.

* Jesus said both the gentiles and the Jews crucified him. Both are guilty.

* "From then on" -Pilate was afraid.

* "We have no king but Caesar" -God was their King (1 Sam. 8:7)

>12. Think about the meaning of Jesus' arrest, trial, and death in light of 2 Co. 5:10; Isa. 53:6; and 1 Pe. 2:24; Jn. 10:11.

* "We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all." -Isaiah 53:6

* "'I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.'" -John 10:11

* "For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive what is due him for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad." -2 Cor 5:10

* "He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed." -1 Peter 2:24

* We should be judged. But Jesus was judged.

* Jesus is the replacement.

* Jesus is the Lamb.

* Appearances are that man (Pharisees, chief priests, and Pilate) are in control. However, God is in control. God ensured that prophecy (his promised word) would be fulfilled.

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