John 19:16b-42 Comments by Stephen Ricker
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Jesus Was Crucified
Comments for Study 24

John 19:16b-42
Key verse: 30

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Passion Week Events

* An outline of Jesus' last week before his resurrection is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area.
    Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
    Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
    Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
    Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as their King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
    Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
    Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
    Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
    Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven.
    Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
    A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
    Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)

* The Passover is linked to the 14th day of the month not the day of the week. It starting on Thursday twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go through the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. He was crucified on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Wave Sheaf, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.

I. They Crucified Him (16-27)

>1. Think about the meaning of the crucifixion of Jesus. (See John 1:29, 20:31; Rev. 1:4b-8)

* "The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, 'Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!'" -John 1:29

* "But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name. -John 20:31

* "John, To the seven churches in the province of Asia: Grace and peace to you from him who is, and who was, and who is to come, and from the seven spirits before his throne, and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood, and has made us to be a kingdom and priests to serve his God and Father--to him be glory and power for ever and ever! Amen. Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and all the peoples of the earth will mourn because of him. So shall it be! Amen. 'I am the Alpha and the Omega,' says the Lord God, 'who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.'" -Rev 1:4-8

* Jesus blood would pour out as an atonement for our sins.

* Jesus is the perfect sacrifice because he alone is of the seed of God. His blood alone in the entire human race is and was pure. As Paul says he is the second (last) Adam. (1 Cor. 15:22, 45) Leviticus 17:11-12a states, “For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one's life." Hebrews 9:22b states, without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.”

* In his book, The Chemistry of the Blood, M. R. DeHann, M.D. explains the origin of blood: “The blood which flows in an unborn babe's arteries and veins is not derived from the mother but is produced within the body of the fetus It is only after the sperm has entered the ovum and a fetus begins to develop that blood appears. As a very simple illustration of this, think of the egg of a hen. An egg not fertilized is simply an ovum on a much larger scale than the human ovum. You may incubate this non-fertilized hen's egg, but it will never develop. It will dry up completely but no chick will result. But let that egg be fertilized by the introduction of the male sperm and incubation will bring to light the presence of life in an embryo. After a few hours it visibly develops. In a little while red streaks occur, denoting the presence of blood According to scientists from the time of conception to the time of birth not ONE SINGLE DROP OF BLOOD ever passes from mother to child The mother contributes no blood at all.” Jesus' pure blood was not conveyed by his mother, the daughter of sinful Adam. Rather, it was conveyed by the pure seed of his Heavenly Father!

* Centrioles are supplied by the father's sperm. A centriole is the center of a centrosome and is a minute protoplasmic body. Plasma is the fluid part of blood and protoplasm is organized living matter, the fluid complex of the living nucleus that is often designated the physical basis of life. The basis of life is in the father's protoplasmic seed: a seed made of fluid and plasma – water and blood. Jesus came by just such a seed. John tells us there is one who came by water and blood – Jesus Christ (1 John 5:6) John also tells us that when Jesus died he saw the blood and water come out of Jesus side separately, thus marking his death. (Source, In Search of Israel by Batya Wootten.)

* Through his act of love Jesus' bride was cleansed of sin by his pure blood. (Rom. 4:25) Thus, Jesus was able to establish again the lost love relationship with his bride. God and anyone in the human race who wants it can have a relationship again. As a symbol of this, when Jesus died on the cross, the curtain that separated the most holy of holies from the place where priests could stand in the temple in Jerusalem was torn in two. (Matt. 27:51) The curtain was the symbol of sin separating God from his people. With Jesus death for his bride, sin was removed and thus no longer would Jesus be separated from his bride. (Col. 1:19-21)

>2. Read verses 16-18 and Isaiah 53:7.

* "He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth." -Isaiah 53:7

* "Finally Pilate handed him over to them to be crucified. So the soldiers took charge of Jesus. Carrying his own cross, he went out to the place of the Skull (which in Aramaic is called Golgotha). Here they crucified him, and with him two others--one on each side and Jesus in the middle." -John 19:16-18

* Pilate gave Jesus over to the Jews so they could crucify him. They used Roman soldiers.

>After Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified, who took charge?

* "So the soldiers took charge of Jesus."

* Jesus accepted what was happening to him quietly; without resistance, complaining and begging for help or for them to stop.

>Where did they take him?

* "...he went out to the place of the Skull (which in Aramaic is called Golgotha)."

* "place of the skull" -Perhaps because so many people were executed there or perhaps the rock formation looked like a skull.

>What was done to him?

* "Here they crucified him, and with him two others - one on each side and Jesus in the middle."

* "crucified" - Gal. 3:13 says,"Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: 'Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.'" This quote is from Deuteronomy 21:23. The points of crucifixion are:
    -instrument of pain
    -instrument of shame
    -the criminal carried their cross
    -they often took the long route so that many could see the might and justice of Rome
    -they were stripped naked
    -they were usually tied and nailed to the cross beam
    -they were liften off the ground because the ground was considered better than the criminal
    -they died due to hunger and exposure to the elements (sun, cold, rain, bugs, etc)
    -their lungs would fill with water which made it hard to breath. So they would have to periodically push themselves up with their feet to get a breath of air. That is why their knees were bent and feet nailed to the post.

* "with two others" -Isa. 53:12 fulfilled. Luke and Mark also records that two robbers were crucified with Jesus. Jesus being crucified with murderers fulfilled prophecy (Isa. 53:12)

>What can we learn from Jesus' silence in pain and shame before the power of death?

* Jesus was silent because he accepted God's will for his life.

* Jesus only spoke during this for others or to fulfill the word of God.

>3. Read verses 19-22.

* "Pilate had a notice prepared and fastened to the cross. It read: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. Many of the Jews read this sign, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek. The chief priests of the Jews protested to Pilate, "Do not write 'The King of the Jews,' but that this man claimed to be king of the Jews." Pilate answered, "What I have written, I have written." -John 19:19-22

>How did Pilate state his conviction about Jesus?

* "It read: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS."

* "THE KING OF THE JEWS" -Pilate didn't know the significance of what he wrote. He followed the practice of writing the crime of the crucified, in Jesus' case Pilate was mocking anyone who went against Caesar. Yet in reality we wrote God's truth. He wrote it in three languages because Jesus died for all, as our king. If our king died this way, what is expected of us?

* Since Jesus had not been convicted of a crime Pilate had to struggle on what to write. He wrote these words for several reasons. One was to get even with the Jewish leaders who trapped him into doing what he knew was wrong and did not want to do. It was a way of getting back at them.

* "Jesus of Nazareth" -to the people this meant a lot.

>Why did he write it in several languages?

* So everyone who went by could read it.

* God was declaring Jesus as king to the whole world.

* The common people spoke Aramaic. The Romans spoke Latin. The scholarly and those from Asia Minor spoke Greek.

>Why were the Jews angry?

* "The chief priests of the Jews protested to Pilate, "Do not write 'The King of the Jews,' but that this man claimed to be king of the Jews." Pilate answered, "What I have written, I have written."

* Pilate hurt their pride.

* They didn't want to have any association with Jesus.

>Why did Pilate refuse to change what he had written?

* "Pilate answered, 'What I have written, I have written.'"

* Pilate would pacify his conscience. He was blaming the Jews for doing this.

* Isa. 9:6, John 18:37, Php. 2:9-11, and 2 Cor. 5:10.

>4. Read verses 23-24. What did the soldiers do?

* "When the soldiers crucified Jesus, they took his clothes, dividing them into four shares, one for each of them, with the undergarment remaining. This garment was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom. "Let's not tear it," they said to one another. "Let's decide by lot who will get it." This happened that the scripture might be fulfilled which said, "They divided my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing." So this is what the soldiers did." -John 19:23-24

>Instead of soldier spirit, what occupied their hearts?

* Selfishness, they thought of themselves and how to gain money and pass the time as they watched for possible trouble.

* They had a cold heart to suffering.

* They really didn't care about the people on the cross or coming to the crucified. They just wanted to get their shift done.

* Their was really little finical gain.

>How did the writer view their actions? (24; Ps. 22:18)

* "They divide my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing." -Psalm 22:18

* "Let's not tear it," they said to one another. "Let's decide by lot who will get it." This happened that the scripture might be fulfilled which said, "They divided my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing." So this is what the soldiers did." -John 19:24

* As fulfilment of Psalm 22:18.

* From a human point of view John, who was there, probably had a hard time in understanding the cruelty of the soldier's. Later he realized that this fulfilled God's will for Jesus.

* When something happens where evil and cruelty seems to be winning we should seek to understand what is going on from God's point of view.

>5. Read verses 25-27.

* "Near the cross of Jesus stood his mother, his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus saw his mother there, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, "Dear woman, here is your son," and to the disciple, "Here is your mother." From that time on, this disciple took her into his home." -John 19:25-27

>Who were the good people who stood near the cross?

* His mother.

* His mother's sister

* Mary the wife of Clopas

* Mary Magdalene

* John

* Letting people near the crucified was unusual because of threat of riot. They saw no threat in an old lady, a boy, and the other women.

* The disciples were at a distance according to Luke 23:49.

>How did Jesus help them?

* "When Jesus saw his mother there, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, "Dear woman, here is your son," and to the disciple, "Here is your mother." From that time on, this disciple took her into his home." -John 19:26-27

* 'saw his mother there and the disciple" -Jesus looked at both. So he wasn't talking about himself.

* "Dear women" -He did not call her mother. He was a mature man, with respect and dignity even though he hung on the cross. He had completed the task he had set for himself as a man. Honor was due him.

* "Here is your son" -Not referring to himself, but to John. Jesus was now leaving her care to John.

* "Here is your mother" -Mary was perhaps 50 now. Jesus had younger brothers. They were not under the cross. Jesus wanted a spiritual man, no matter how young physically to be responsible for her.

>What can we learn here about Jesus' humanity?

* When in pain he taught of others.

* This is humanity as it was meant to be.

>What can we learn from him about the cost and the beauty of obedience to God's will? (Heb. 5:8,9)

* "Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him" -Hebrews 5:8-9

* Obedience has a price in this world and a reward in the next.

II. The Death of Jesus (28-37)

>6. Read verses 28-30.

* "Later, knowing that all was now completed, and so that the Scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said, "I am thirsty." A jar of wine vinegar was there, so they soaked a sponge in it, put the sponge on a stalk of the hyssop plant, and lifted it to Jesus' lips. When he had received the drink, Jesus said, "It is finished." With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit." -John 19:28-30

>When and why did Jesus say, "I am thirsty"?

* "Later" -Jesus hung on the cross for several hours.

* "knowing that all was now complete" -Jesus did all that was required by his father. He knew and understood it.

* "so that Scripture would be fulfilled" -Psalm 69:21 says, "They put gall in my food and gave me vinegar for my thirst." Jesus did this to fulfill scripture.

* Everything Jesus did was for a purpose; to fulfill God's will.

>What did he say after drinking the vinegar? (29-30)

* "When he had received the drink, Jesus said, "It is finished." With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit." -John 19:29-30

* Glory is brought to God when we finish the work the set for us to do.

>What can we learn from his sense of mission and his spirit? (John 6:63)

* "The Spirit gives life; the flesh counts for nothing. The words I have spoken to you are spirit and they are life." -John 6:63

* Luke 13:24

* Apostle Paul also said, "I have finished the race set before me."

>How did John see this?

* "Later, knowing that all was now completed, and so that the Scripture would be fulfilled..." John 19:28a

* "Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath. Because the Jews did not want the bodies left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies taken down. The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other. But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus' side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water. The man who saw it has given testimony, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, and he testifies so that you also may believe. These things happened so that the scripture would be fulfilled: "Not one of his bones will be broken," and, as another scripture says, "They will look on the one they have pierced." -John 19:31-37

* John saw this as the victory cry of the Messiah.

>Why did the soldiers break the legs of the other two men on the crosses?

* To speed the death. Those crucified needed to push up their bodies every once in a while to get a good breath. If they could not they would drown in their own waters.

* Isa. 53 fulfilled.

* 1 John 5:6

>Why did they not break Jesus' legs?

* Jesus was already dead.

* Those overseeing his crucifixion drove a shaft into his side to ensure that his body had stopped functioning. The white and red blood cells in his heart separated and poured out of his heart when the shaft sliced through his body. (John 19:35) The separation only happens when the blood stops flowing for one is heavier than the other, so they separate.

* Note: Jesus walked in his resurrected body, this one.

>What did they do instead?

* Pierced him with a spear in the side.

* This shows that he was really dead.

>What is the testimony of John? (See scripture in footnote.)

* He saw it all happen.

* John dug out this one little fact. At the time he didn't understand the importance of this. Later he did. John was personally involved.

>What is the purpose of his testimony? (Compare John 20:31)

* "But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name." -John 20:31

* We must accept by faith.

>8. Think about the meaning of Jesus' shed blood (John 1:29; 1 John 1:7)

* "The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" -John 1:29

* "But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, purifies us from all sin." -1 John 1:7

* See my notes above about blood.

III. The Burial of Jesus (38-42)

>9. Who buried Jesus?

* "Later, Joseph of Arimathea asked Plate for the body of Jesus. Now Joseph was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly because he feared the Jews. With Pilate's permission, he came and took the body away. He was accompanied by Nicodemus, the man who earlier had visited Jesus at night." -John 19:38-39

>What information is given about Joseph?

* "Arimathea" -Found also is Matthew 27:57, Mark 15:43 and Luke 23:51; each time only when referring to Joseph. The location of Arimathea is not certainly known. In Luke 23:51, Arimathea is described as a Jewish city. The Aramaic Syriac translation of John 19:38 literally reads, "Ramtha" which when anglicized comes to "Ramath." Some have hypothesized that it was another name for Ramathaim-Zophim in Ephraim, the birthplace of Samuel, where David came to him (1 Samuel 1:1, 19). Others identify it with Ramlah in Dan, or Ramah in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).

* "Now Joseph was a disciple of Jesus"

* "but secretly because he feared the Jews"

* Luke 23:50-52, Mark 15:43, Matt. 27:57-60

* Isa. 53:9

>How was he changed by Jesus' crucifixion?

* He was no longer secretive.

* Jesus' crucifixion changed him. He really believed Jesus was the Messiah.

* He took a new step of faith.

>Find Nicodemus' previous appearance in this gospel.

* John 3:1-22

* John 7:50-52

>What did he now contribute to Jesus' burial?

* "Nicodemus brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds."-

>How was he changed by Jesus on the cross?

* He was no longer secretive.

* He was sacrificial.

>10. What is the significance of Jesus' burial by two dignitaries?

* Jesus was buried according to the law.

* God prepared these people for this moment.

* They burying Jesus lends to the credibility of Jesus' death. If the disciples did it, they some would claim mischief.

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