Jesus the First to Rise From the Dead
Comments for Study 42
Memory Verse: 46-47
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* A timeline concerning since Jesus first arrived in Jerusalem for the last time is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as thier King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According to Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven. (1 Peter 3:18-20)
Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
Fourty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)
* Note: The Passover is linked to the 14th day of the month not the day of the week. Passover starting on Thursday at twilight is a very rare event; unusally it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go thru the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread (always on the first Sabbath after Passover), and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Sheaf Wave, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.
* Note: The Hebrew calendar considered an event lasting for an entire day even though it was only a fwq hours or even minutes long. Thus even though Jesus died at the end of the Hebrew day on Friday he is considered to have been buried that day. The same can be stated for Sunday. Even though he was in the grave for a few moments after sun rise he is considered to be in grave Sunday.
I. He Has Risen (1-12)
>1. Who went to Jesus' tomb very early in the morning?
* Luke 24:1 "On the first day of the week, very early in the morning, the women took the spices they had prepared and went to the tomb."
* Luke 24:10 "It was Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the others with them who told this to the apostles.
* The Scofield Reference Bible organizes the women's visits like this: "Three women, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, start for the sepulchre, followed by other women bearing spices. The three find the stone rolled away, and Mary Magdalene goes to tell the disciples (Lk. 23:55-24:9; John 20:1-2). Mary, the mother of James and Joses, draws nearer the tomb and sees the angel of the Lord (Mt. 28:2) She goes back to meet the other women following with the spices. Meanwhile Peter and John, warned by Mary Magdalene, arrive, look in, and go away (John 20:3-10). Mary Magdalene returns weeping, sees the two angels and then Jesus (John 20:11-18), and goes as He bade her to tell the disciples. Mary (mother of James and Joses), meanwhile, has met the women with the spices and, returning with them, they see the two angels (Lk. 24:4-5; Mk. 16:5). They also receive the angelic message, and going to seek the disciples, are met by Jesus (Mt. 28:8-10).
* "On the first day of the week, very early in the morning" -This Sunday as according to the week that the Lord established through Moses. Matthew 28:1 notes that it was "After the Sabbath, at dawn." Mark 16:2 says it was "just after sunrise" when they were on their way to the tomb.
* "the women" -There were perhaps five women going to the tomb in at least two groups.
* "Mary Magdalene" -Mary was a very common Jewish name at the time. Magdala was not this Mary's last name. Magdala was an important agricultural, fishing, and trade center of ancient Galilee. Mark 16:9 and Luke 8:2 indicate that this Mary, from Magdala, was exorcised of some seven demons. In antiquity, demon possession was an indication of physical or spiritual illness; obviously, Mary Magdalene was quite ill before her encounter with Jesus. Mary eventually became part of an inner circle of supporters of Jesus. She was a witness of His crucifixion (Mark 15:40; Matt. 27:56; John 19:25), burial (Mark 15:47; Matt. 27:61), the empty tomb (Mark 16:18; Matt. 28:1-10; Luke 24:10), and she was a witness of Jesus’ resurrection (Mark 16:9; John 20:1-18). A tradition, especially prevalent in western Christianity from about A.D. 500 onward, identified Mary Magdalene with the sinful woman of Luke 7:36-50. The text gives no reason for such an association, as the introduction of Mary in Luke 8 is quite removed topically from Luke 7:36. To confuse the interpretative tradition further, the sinful woman in the anointing scene of Luke 7:36-50 is often identified incorrectly with another Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazrus. On all accounts, no evidence exists that the sinful woman of Luke 7 should be identified as Mary.
* "Joanna" -Joanna is a personal nam meaning, “Yahweh’s gift.” In Luke 8:3, one of the women whom Jesus had healed and who ministered to Him out of their own private means. She was the wife of Herod’s steward Chuza. Luke’s Gospel, which gives particular prominence to women, also mentions her in 24:10. She was one of the women who came to Jesus’ tomb on the Sunday following the crucifixion and reported to the eleven the message that He had risen.
* "Mary the mother of James" -Mary, the mother of James the younger and of Joses and Salome. This Mary would appear to be part of Jesus’ following from Galilee who moved with Him during His itinerant public ministry (compare Mark 15:40-41). She witnessed Jesus’ crucifixion and was part of the group of women who encountered the empty tomb (Mark 15:47; 16:1-8; Matt. 27:55-56; 28:1-8; Luke 23:56; 24:1-10).
* "the others with them" -Luke must have only interviewed the three mentioned or perhaps the ones he interviews could only remember some of the names of the women who were there.
* "took the spices they had prepared" -According to strict Jewish Sabbath laws it would have been illegal for the women to prepare the spices and then anoint the body. So they had to be sure to wait until Sunday to officially start.
* "went to the tomb" -They did not expect Jesus to have risen from the dead.
* Even though the women were deeply hurt by Jesus' death, their devotion to him lead them to serve him even though it was only his body.
>What might have been their concern on the way?
* Mark 16:3 states, "they asked each other, 'Who will roll the stone away from the entrance of the tomb?'"
* The women might have wondered what would they do when they encourtered the soldiers who were ordered to guard the tomb.
* They had saw the place and manner that Jesus was buried. (23:55-56) They knew the problems but went anyway.
* Jesus arrest and death were the only subjects that they would have thought about.
* Their sorrow and despair would have been great.
>What did they find when they arrived at the tomb?
* Luke 24:2-3 "They found the stone rolled away from the tomb, but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus."
* "the stone rolled away from the tomb" -Tombs in Palestine in those years were often cut out of stone or were caves that were enlargened. One or often more bodies were buried in these tombs. Notches were cut in the walls of the tomb were the bodies were to lie until they decayed. Then the bones were put in a plaster box and often kept in the same cave. Large rocks were rounded and flattened so that they looked like a large hockey puck or biscuit. The rock would have weighed around a ton. The threshold contained a notch that the rock was rolled into. The notch helped keep the rock in place. The point of the rock was to keep animals out.
* "when they entered" -The women must have been confused as to why the stone was removed. Jews would not have moved it because it would have broken the Sabbath. The Roman soldiers would not have move it because they were under orders of death to keep anyone from entering the tomb. (Matt. 27:62-66)
* "they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus" -Since the guard had to stay three days, no one would have moved the body before sunrise Sunday. The only people the women saw when they first came to the tomb so some might have suspected the soldiers did something with the body, or at least would have known what happened to it.
* Jesus' empty tomb is the greatest source of hope for all people.
>2. Who were the two men in the tomb?
* Luke 24:4 "While they were wondering about this, suddenly two men in clothes that gleamed like lightning stood beside them."
* "While they were wondering about this" -The tomb being empty.
* "suddenly" -The visitors appeared out of nowhere. They did not walk into the tomb. They were sent to explain to the women what had happened. The Lord knew what they were wondering and so he set these men in gleaming clothes to state the good news.
* "two men in clothes that gleamed like lightning" -Angels are elsewhere described as appearing this way. (Luke 2:9; Acts 1:10, 12:7; 2 Cor. 11:14)
* "stood beside them" -They were in the tomb. So this tomb had to be rather large.
>What was the response of the women as they entered the tomb and found out what was going on there?
* Luke 24:5a "In their fright the women bowed down with their faces to the ground"
* "In their fright" -Whenever angels appeared to humans the people fear entered their hearts.
* "bowed down with their faces to the ground" -Instinctly sinful humans are overwhelmed with a sense of judgement and awe in the presence of sinless angels of the Lord.
>How did the men gently rebuke the women?
* Luke 24:5b-6 "but the men said to them, "Why do you look for the living among the dead? He is not here; he has risen! Remember how he told you, while he was still with you in Galilee:"
* "Why do you look for the living among the dead?"
* "said to them" -Angels do have a language of their own. Whether or not they speak human languages or we are merely given the ablility to understand them is not clear.
* A question concerning obvious facts is often a gentle rebuke, especially in the Bible. For example when Adam and Eve sinned the Lord asked them a simple question, "Who told you that you were naked."
>What good news did they give the women?
* "He is not here; he has risen!"
* Jesus' resurrection was the most important event of the passion week to the early church to the point that the churches fought over the day it should be celebrated caused the split of the eastern and western congregations in the third century.
* Without the resurrection Jesus' death would not have meant anything.
* The word “resurrection” in Greek is “anastasis”, meaning literally “standing again.” It is used forty times in the New Testament, and always refers most naturally to a bodily rising from the dead. (John 11:24; Acts 4:33, Rev. 20:5) There is certainly no warrant for taking it to mean something else. Jesus walked out of his tomb in the same body that was crucified. When he arrived in heaven, however, his body was changed, for he shined very brightly. This is the state of Jesus now. He is in a glorious resurrection body. This is the form that God and he chose him to be in. This is how the Bridegroom looks. This is the state of the King.
>Which of Jesus' words did they remind them of?
* Luke 24:7 "'The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, be crucified and on the third day be raised again.'"
* "The Son of Man" -Jesus refered to himself as this way because before the immaculate conception the Lord Jesus never appeared as a man. The Son of Man is often used in the Old Testament to mean the Messiah.
* Jesus had often told them this (9:22, 13:32, 18:33, 24:7, 46). Yet they did not accept it and/or understand it.
* Direct quotes from the word of the Lord are very powerful and should often be used.
* "on the third day" -The angels confired that it was the third day; Sunday, Saturday, and Friday.
>3. How were the women changed as they remembered Jesus' words?
* Luke 24:8-9 "Then they remembered his words. When they came back from the tomb, they told all these things to the Eleven and to all the others."
* "Then they remembered his words" -Understanding and believing are often two different things. Mary Magdalene's tears even after this shows they didn't fully understand what all this resurrection stuff was all about. After all though Jesus rose people from the dead in all of human history no one ever raised himself from the dead like Jesus did.
* "When they came back from the tomb" -They had been staying in the upper room with many other disciples including the apostles.
* From sorrow and tears to joy and excitment.
>What did they do?
* "they told all these things" -A lot had happened when they arrived at the tomb as the gospel accounts testify.
* "the the Eleven" -Refering to the apostles minus Judas who betrayed Jesus and then killed himself.
* "and all the others" -Though the amount is not clear how many it is at this time, later we know that one hundred twenty were praying and awaiting for the promised Holy Spirit.
* When a person begins to seriously consider and even believe in the message of the Jesus' resurrection they cannot but help and tell others, especially people they know.
* Testifying about Jesus' resurrection increases grace. Acts 4:33 states, "With great power the apostles continued to testify to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and much grace was upon them all."
* Romans 1:2-4 "The gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord."
* 1 Corinthians 15:21-23 "For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive. But each in his own turn: Christ, the firstfruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him."
* 1 Corinthians 15:42-49 "So will it be with the resurrection of the dead. The body that is sown is perishable, it is raised imperishable; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. So it is written: "The first man Adam became a living being"; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit. The spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and after that the spiritual. The first man was of the dust of the earth, the second man from heaven. As was the earthly man, so are those who are of the earth; and as is the man from heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. And just as we have borne the likeness of the earthly man, so shall we bear the likeness of the man from heaven."
* 1 Peter 1:3-5 "Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade--kept in heaven for you, who through faith are shielded by God's power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time."
* Revelation 20:4-6 "I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony for Jesus and because of the word of God. They had not worshiped the beast or his image and had not received his mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy are those who have part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with him for a thousand years."
>To whom did they deliver the first resurrection message?
* Luke 24:10 "It was Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the others with them who told this to the apostles."
* "to the apostles" -Jesus did not appear to the apostles first. Instead he sent others to tell them that he had risen. Consider why?
>4. How did the apostles respond to their message?
* Luke 24:11 "But they did not believe the women, because their words seemed to them like nonsense."
* "they did not believe the women" -We should not be quick in judging the apostles. we should place ourselves in their situation and then consider ours.
* "Their words seemed to themlike nonsense" -They believed the women were hysterical.
* The apostles were full of unbelief and fatalism.
>What did Peter do?
* Luke 24:12 "Peter, however, got up and ran to the tomb. Bending over, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he went away, wondering to himself what had happened."
* "Peter, however, got up" -Unlike all but John, wanted to see himself. He is known as a man of motion and action. Peter had gone through denying Jesus, even having Jesus look directly at him the third time he denied Jesus. Peter's faith had been strengthened when Jesus' foretelling of these denials turned out to be exactly true.
* "ran to the tomb" -excitingly his heart must have pounded hard when he heard the women's news.
* "Bending over" -The entrance of the tomb was perhaps three or four feet (two meters) high.
* "he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves" -This would indicate that the linen was carefully unwrapped from the body or that they fell through the body (this would have been a miracle in itself). If Jesus' body was taken the theives would not have removed the linen, let alone lie them neatly by themselves.
* John followed after Peter first left though Luke does not mention it here. John did.
>What was his reaction as he saw what had happened in the tomb?
* "and he went away, wondering to himself what had happened"
* Peter's mind was open to possibilities. However, none of the gospels said that he believed for sure that Jesus rose from the dead even though the women had reported this.
* Seeing is not always believing.
>How was Peter different from the women?
* The women believed while Peter just wondered about it.
* The women are not listed as noticing the arrangment of the burial clothes.
* No angels appeared to Peter.
II. On the Road to Emmaus (13-35)
>5. Who were the two men who were going to Emmaus?
* Luke 24:13 "Now that same day two of them were going to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem."
* "Now that same day"-24:1 says that it was the first day of the week. The first day of the week for Jews is Sunday, which starts when the sun rises. This of cousre is Easter Sunday. Jesus appeared to these two men on the same day that he appeared to the women and Mary Magdalene. He appeared to the women as the sun was rising.
* "two of them" -Mark is the only other one who mentions this event (Mark 16:12-13). He to only says "two of them". However, I can surmize that these two were junior disciples for verse 33 says that "...they got up and returned at once to Jerusalem. There they found the Eleven..." I speculate that these two men were related; brothers or at least cousins.
* "were gong" -Why did they leave Jerusalem? Most likely they were going home to resume their old lives. To them, since Jesus died there was no reason to be a disciple of Jesus and thus stay with the rest. Verse 17 says, "...their faces (were) downcast..." Thus they were sad and disappointed. Verse 21 says, "...but we had hoped that he was the one who ws going to redeem Isreal..." This is in the past tense. Thus they did not hope anymore.
* "to the village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem." -Emmaus is believed to be directly west of Jerusalem on a trade route which goes to Lydda and then to the sea port of Joppa.
* "Seven miles" -This can be walked in about an hour and a half on flat soil. Verse 15 does say that they walked. They did not run. And the terran is mostly flat with small rolling hills.
* The route would be all mediterranean vegetation.
>What were they discussing?
* Luke 24:14 "They were talking with each other about everything that had happened."
* Why were they talking about such things if they felt the way they did? Perhaps when the journey started they were quiet. But being that the events of the last two weeks were so overwhelming they could not help but think about them. Finally, since it was a long journey, they could not keep silent. They began talking, asking each other questions, going over the details again and again.
>What do you think kept them from recognizing the Risen Jesus who joined them?
* Luke 24:15-16 "As they talked and discussed these things with each other, Jesus himself came up and walked along with them; but they were kept from recognizing him."
* "Jesus himself came up" -Why did Jesus appear to the women and then go to these junior disciples before he appeared to the Eleven who were the leaders? Perhaps to reveal to the Eleven their lack of faith so that they could repent and have faith. Or, most likely, to help them have faith by believing the reports of the others. After all Jesus did say to them, "...why do doubts rise in your minds?" in verse 37.
* "and walked along with them" -Why did Jesus go to these men who had given up hope in him? It was by grace and mercy. Even though they had failed him (believing in him), Jesus did not fail them. This is truely great. They had given up, but Jesus did not give up on them. He came and help them believe.
* Jesus' actions toward these men is full of grace. He did not rebuke them, correct them, instead he uplifted them.
* "they were kept" -Who kept them? God of course. If he didn't keep them from recognizing him, it seems they would have recognized him. Yet God did not want them to recognize Jesus right away. How did he do it? Luke does not say, but I can think of several ways that the did it. Mark says that Jesus was in a different form (Mark 16:12. I go over that in my Mark studies).
* What would have happened if they recognized Jesus right away? They would have been at first shocked and them full of great joy like the women. Yet God did not give them that joy right away. Why? Because having faith in the resurrected and Jesus being the Christ who was to under go all that he did through understanding the prophecies about it was more important for these two (and then later the apostles). Faith in the resurrected Jesus is possible through God teaching us through the word of God and even important that immediate joy caused the physical revelations.
* So they were kept from recognizing Jesus so that they could have faith based on the word of God, rather than having seeing faith. After all Jesus did say to Thomas, "Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed." (John 20:29)
* Jesus obviously wants us to believe without seeing. This, by definition, is a much greater faith. Hebrews 11:1 says, "Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see."
>Why were they downcast even after they heard that Jesus was alive?
* Luke 24:17 "He asked them, "What are you discussing together as you walk along?" They stood still, their faces downcast."
* They did not believe in Jesus resurrection.
* They only believed in his crucifiction and death.
* Thus Jesus' death without resurrection is no hope at all.
* They were full of lost hopes and dreams.
>6. What can you learn about their thoughts concerning Jesus through the story they told to the Risen Jesus?
* They only saw Jesus as coming from Nazerath.
* They only saw Jesus as a great prophet; no more.
* They only saw Jesus death as a result of the chief priests actions.
* They only had hope in Jesus redeeming Israel in a human way. (21)
* They did not have the correct understand of the Messiah as can be found in the Scriptures.
>How did they reveal their despair?
* Luke 24:18-24 "One of them, named Cleopas, asked him, "Are you only a visitor to Jerusalem and do not know the things that have happened there in these days?" "What things?" he asked. "About Jesus of Nazareth," they replied. "He was a prophet, powerful in word and deed before God and all the people. The chief priests and our rulers handed him over to be sentenced to death, and they crucified him; but we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. And what is more, it is the third day since all this took place. In addition, some of our women amazed us. They went to the tomb early this morning but didn't find his body. They came and told us that they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive. Then some of our companions went to the tomb and found it just as the women had said, but him they did not see."
* "we had hoped" -They had lost their hope in Jesus.
* They did not mention God's hand in all that had happened in the last few days.
* Dispare can overwhelm a person.
* "Cleopas" -Only mentioned here. Luke must have interviewed him.
>7. How and why did Jesus rebuke them?
* Luke 24:25-26 "He said to them, "How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?"
* "How foolish you are" -Not gentle words. Jesus didn't show a "worldly compassion".
* "how slow of heart" -To accept the word of God is different than accepting it in the head.
* "to believe all that the prophets have spoken" -Jesus did not rebuke them for not believing the women.
>How did he try to teach them about Christ and the resurrection?
* Luke 24:27 "And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself."
* "concerning himself" -The main point of this teaching session was Jesus' death and resurrection.
* "beginning with Moses and all the Prophets" -Use the word of God when witnessing to others about the good news.
>What happened when they recognized the Risen Jesus as they shared bread with him?
* Luke 24:28-31 "As they approached the village to which they were going, Jesus acted as if he were going farther. But they urged him strongly, "Stay with us, for it is nearly evening; the day is almost over." So he went in to stay with them. When he was at the table with them, he took bread, gave thanks, broke it and began to give it to them. Then their eyes were opened and they recognized him, and he disappeared from their sight."
>8. What did they say to each other when they recognized him?
>What did they do when they were convinced of his resurrection?
* Luke 24:32 "They asked each other, "Were not our hearts burning within us while he talked with us on the road and opened the Scriptures to us?"
>What can we learn about the changing power of Jesus' resurrection through the changed attitudes and actions of the disciples?
* Luke 24:33-35 "They got up and returned at once to Jerusalem. There they found the Eleven and those with them, assembled together and saying, "It is true! The Lord has risen and has appeared to Simon." Then the two told what had happened on the way, and how Jesus was recognized by them when he broke the bread."
* They were no longer desparing. Their hearts were burning; meaning full of power and joy.
* They were no longer afraid. They returned to Jerusalem.
* Like the women they wanted to tell someone else.
III. Jesus Appears to the Disciples (36-49)
>9. What did the Risen Jesus say when he visited the disciples?
* Luke 24:36 "While they were still talking about this, Jesus himself stood among them and said to them, "Peace be with you."
* "While they" -They are the two who were on their way to Emmaus. They were in the presents of the Eleven apostles and "those with them". (33)
* "were still talking about this" -The two were in the process of telling the Eleven, who were the leaders (the rest also listened), about their encounter with Jesus.
* It was probably in the dark of the early night, for it was evening (almost dark) in verse 29. After breaking bread (which didn't take long), they returned at once (probably a fast pace but not quite running) to Jerusalem (33) which was approximately seven miles from Emmaus.
* Those who were gathered were not probably ready for bed because they were all to excited about Peter's report to think about sleep.
* The excitement in the room was probably made even greater with the two's report to the Eleven
* "Jesus himself" -the author specifically wants to point out that it was Jesus, the same one that created the world, the same one that was born in a manger, and the same one that was with those who were in the room now. Jesus had risen from the dead.
* "stood among them and said to them" -Jesus' resurrected body stood on the floor. He was "among them" in very presence and reality. "Among" is Greek "mesos". In Greek it means; middle, before them, between, and midst.
* Jesus' resurrected body also spoke so that they understood him as speaking.
* "Peace be with you" -"Peace" in Greek is "eirene". It is probably from a prime verb "eiro" (to join). It means prosperity, one, peace, quietness, rest, and set at one again.
* The resurrected Jesus greeted them with this phrase a lot. In those days it was a traditional greeting. Why did Jesus use it? Jesus gave this common greeting new significance by his resurrect. Basically one could say he was blessing them, but it has greater meaning than just a blessing. Sinful and mortal man could be at peace for because of Christ and in Christ was the power of resurrection over sin and death. Mankind does not need to be restless about their lives and futures (as the disciples were) for life is more than the brief few year here on this world. I can have peace of mind, heart and soul.
>How did they respond?
* Luke 24:37 "They were startled and frightened, thinking they saw a ghost."
* "Startled" - In Greek "ptoeo". Probably akin to; "through the idea of causing to fall" or to; "through that of causing to fly away". Meaning; to scare and frighten.
* "Frightened" -In Greek "emphobos". Meaning; in fear, i.e. alarmed. and affrighted, afraid, and tremble.
* "Ghost" -In Greek "pneuma". From "a current of air, i.e. breath (blast) or a breeze; or "spirit i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by impl.) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel or demon." Also used elsewhere as the divine; God, Christ's spirit, and the Holy Spirit.
* "Ghost" -The dead without a body.
* This is not the first time that they though Jesus was a ghost (Mark 6:49). Each time it was when Jesus was doing something that man could not do without God's help. It seems they had suddenly forgotten what Jesus could do. It's that a common reaction; our insecure feelings over reality and acknowledgment of God.
* Why did the disciples act and think this way since they were already talking about Jesus' resurrection as a fact? The disciples had these facts about Jesus' resurrection; 1) He was in the body that was with them for the past three and a half years (since the tomb was empty), 2) in the accounts of Jesus the people recognized him as a human (He ate, he talked, he walked, he looked like a normal human being). Therefore they assumed that he was the same as before his death.
* The disciples were in a locked room (John 20:19). No one could get in or out without them letting them do so. They did not expect to see Jesus just suddenly pop-in.
* So they acted and thought this way out of ignorance. Jesus was not as they supposed (the same as before his death). He was different. He was in a resurrected body which is beyond the capabilities of the mortal body.
* So why did the disciples act and thin the way they did? Because the disciples did not know about the resurrected body and that Jesus was in one.
* Emotions blocked faith and clear thinking.
>How did he convince them of his resurrection?
* Luke 24:38-39 "He said to them, "Why are you troubled, and why do doubts rise in your minds? Look at my hands and my feet. It is I myself! Touch me and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones, as you see I have."
* "Why are you troubled" -The disciples troubled hearts were not logical. There was no reason to be troubled at his appearance before them. Of course I could say, "Well, they didn't recognize him so naturally they thought it was a ghost, a supernatural being, because he was doing supernatural things. And so naturally they were troubled." But Jesus corrects them, "Why are you troubled". He was saying, "Think about it. Is this not possible for me?"
* "and" -A separate point with the common these of "You are not doing what is right.
* "Why do doubts rise in your minds" -The disciples doubted that someone could get into the locked room. The disciples doubted that it was Jesus before them now.
* See my logic on earlier question by Jesus.
* "in your minds" -The disciples doubts was in their minds. It was not in their hearts. It was not deep in their being.
* How often has Jesus been before me and I have been troubled and doubted? How often does he prove to me the truth so exactly and yet I still am troubled and doubt? Yet he says so gently and directly, "Why are you troubled, and why do doubts rise in your mind?"
* "Look at my hands and my feet." -These where the hands and feet that was pierced by the nails when he was crucified. They no doubt still had the marks on them. In fact they were probably holes there, or at least dimples.
* "!" -shows Jesus' nature (spirit) in telling this to his disciples. He was not harshly rebuking them. Rather he was trying to ride their fear and uncertainty with his enthusiasm and certainty.
* "Touch me and see" -Where as before Jesus kept Mary M. from touching Jesus, now he invited it as evidence of who he was.
* "a ghost does not have flesh and bones" -Jesus was not a ghost. He was more than a ghost (spirit). He had flesh and bones. A ghost is only in the spirit (See earlier explanation of Greek). Jesus was in the resurrected body which is more than the spiritual body. Man was originally made to have a spiritual body and a physical body. So naturally if God is restoring things to the way they were, man (when resurrected) will not only have a spiritual body, but also a physical body.
* "It is I myself" -Jesus was the same as they had known before. He is the same yesterday, today, and forever.
* Jesus, being God can appear anyway he wants to. Consider the mount of transfiguration during his earthly ministry.
>Why was it hard for them to believe even after seeing him?
* Luke 24:40-41a "When he had said this, he showed them his hands and feet. And while they still did not believe it because of joy and amazement"
* "And while they still did not believe it" -The physical facts previously presented was not enough to convince them. Why? Luke tells us.
* "because of joy and amazement" -Their feelings kept them from believing Jesus himself was before them in the flesh. Previously the feelings of their being startled and afraid kept them from believing. Now joy and amazement kept them from believing. Feelings can get in the way of faith and belief.
>What did he prove to them by eating in their presence?
* Luke 24:41b-43 "he asked them, "Do you have anything here to eat?" They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and ate it in their presence."
* "he asked them" -Even though the disciples still doubted his presents before him in the flesh/spirit (resurrection body), Jesus worked to help them believe. This is the grace of Christ.
* "Do you have anything here to eat?" -By eating Jesus would prove that he was not a ghost.
* "broiled fish" -Jerusalem was not near a great body of water that would have had a lot of fish to put on the market. So how did they get the fish? Even if fish was in the market by way of import, it probably would have been costly. The disciples were poor so they would not have afforded it. So, most likely the disciples had it with them since they traveled down from Galilee a few months earlier.
>10. How did he help their faith and how did he open their minds?
* Luke 24:44-46 "He said to them, "This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms." Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. He told them, "This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day,"
* "then he opened their minds" -Jesus opens minds. Man can not know God unless God opens our minds.
* Jesus is the main focus of the Old Testament.
>What mission and promise did he give them?
* Luke 24:47-49 "and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. I am going to send you what my Father has promised; but stay in the city until you have been clothed with power from on high."
IV. The Ascension (50-53)
>11. Describe Jesus' ascension into heaven. How does Jesus' ascension give the hope of Jesus' second coming to his disciples? (Acts 1:9-11)
* Luke 24:50-51 "When he had led them out to the vicinity of Bethany, he lifted up his hands and blessed them. While he was blessing them, he left them and was taken up into heaven."
* Acts 1:9-11 "After he said this, he was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them. "Men of Galilee," they said, "why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven."
>What did they do after his ascension?
* Luke 24:52 "Then they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy."
>How were the disciples changed after believing Jesus' resurrection?
* Luke 24:53 "And they stayed continually at the temple, praising God."
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